Significance and Use
General—This guide contains information regarding the use of membrane technology to recover and concentrate hazardous materials that have entered surface and ground water as the result of a spill. Membrane technology may be applied alone or in conjunction with other treatment techniques, as follows:
Different types of membrane are used in series with filters to treat highly contaminated solutions reaching concentration levels of several parts per million of organic and inorganic materials.
Different types of membranes are applied in series to treat very dilute concentrations (parts per billion level) of organic and inorganic compounds. Each membrane type has the ability to remove specific compounds, thus producing a concentrated fraction. This fraction may require final off-site treatment but provides a significant reduction in transportation costs due to the large volume reduction achieved.
Membranes may be used in conjunction with destruction technologies such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). This method is recommended for dilute solutions. The membrane technology portion concentrates the compounds to an optimum level for AOP destruction.
1.1 This guide covers considerations for the use of membrane technology in the mitigation of dilute concentrations of spilled chemicals into ground and surface waters.
1.2 This guide addresses the application of membrane technology alone or in conjunction with other technologies.
1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. In addition, it is the responsibility of the user to ensure that such activity takes place under the control and direction of a qualified person with full knowledge of any potential or appropriate safety and health protocols.
concentration; filtrate; filtration; hazardous spill mitigation; membrane; microfiltration; nanofiltration; permeate; pervaporation; retentate; reverse osmosis; ultrafiltration; Chemical spills; Concentration (of elements); Destruction; Filtration; Ground water; Hazardous materials (environmental); Hydrocarbons; Membrane technology; Microfiltration (MF); Mitigating chemical spills; Nanofiltration (NF) materials/applications; Oil spill response; Permeate flow; Pervaporation (PV); Retentate; Reverse osmosis (RO) installations; Surface water; Ultrafiltrates/ultrafiltration (UF) systems;
ICS Number Code 13.060.10 (Water of natural resources); 71.080.01 (Organic chemicals in general)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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