ASTM F1524 - 95(2013)

    Standard Guide for Use of Advanced Oxidation Process for the Mitigation of Chemical Spills

    Active Standard ASTM F1524 | Developed by Subcommittee: F20.22

    Book of Standards Volume: 11.05


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    Significance and Use

    3.1 General—This guide contains information regarding the use of AOPs to oxidize and eventually mineralize hazardous materials that have entered surface and groundwater as the result of a spill. Since much of this technology development is still at the benchscale level, these guidelines will only refer to those units that are currently applied at a field scale level.

    3.2 Oxidizing Agents:

    3.2.1 Hydroxyl Radical (OH)—The OH radical is the most common oxidizing agent employed by this technology due to its powerful oxidizing ability. When compared to other oxidants such as molecular ozone, hydrogen peroxide, or hypochlorite, its rate of attack is commonly much faster. In fact, it is typically one million (106) to one billion (109) times faster than the corresponding attack with molecular ozone (1).2 The three most common methods for generating the hydroxyl radical are described in the following equations:

    Equation F1524-95R13_1


    Equation F1524-95R13_2


    Equation F1524-95R13_3

    3.2.1.1 Hydrogen peroxide is the preferred oxidant for photolytic oxidation systems since ozone will encourage the air stripping of solutions containing volatile organics (2) . Capital and operating costs are also taken into account when a decision on the choice of oxidant is made.

    3.2.1.2 Advanced oxidation technology has also been developed based on the anatase form of titanium dioxide. This method by which the photocatalytic process generates hydroxyl radicals is described in the following equations:

    Equation F1524-95R13_4


    Equation F1524-95R13_5

    3.2.2 Photolysis—Destruction pathways, besides the hydroxyl radical attack, are very important for the more refractory compounds such as chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethane, and other chlorinated methane or ethane compounds. A photoreactor's ability to destroy these compounds photochemically will depend on its output level at specific wavelengths. Since most of these lamps are proprietary, preliminary benchscale testing becomes crucial when dealing with these compounds.

    3.3 AOP Treatment Techniques:

    3.3.1 Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may be applied alone or in conjunction with other treatment techniques as follows:

    3.3.1.1 Following a pretreatment step. The pretreatment process can be either a physical or chemical process for the removal of inorganic or organic scavengers from the contaminated stream prior to AOP destruction.

    3.3.1.2 Following a preconcentration step. Due to the increase in likelihood of radical or molecule contact, very dilute solutions can be treated cost effectively using AOPs after being concentrated.

    3.4 AOP Treatment Applications—Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are most cost effective for those waste streams containing organic compounds at concentrations below 1 % (10 000 ppm). This figure will vary depending upon the nature of the compounds and whether there is competition for the oxidizing agent.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide covers the considerations for advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in the mitigation of spilled chemicals and hydrocarbons dissolved into ground and surface waters.

    1.2 This guide addresses the application of advanced oxidation alone or in conjunction with other technologies.

    1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. In addition, it is the responsibility of the user to ensure that such activity takes place under the control and direction of a qualified person with full knowledge of any potential safety and health protocols.


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 71.060.20 (Oxides)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 77131502(Oil spillage control services)


    DOI: 10.1520/F1524-95R13

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