ASTM F1478 - 06(2011)

    Standard Test Method for Determination of Abrasion Resistance of Images Produced from Copiers and Printers (Taber Method)

    Active Standard ASTM F1478 | Developed by Subcommittee: F05.04

    Book of Standards Volume: 15.09


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 The degree of image abraded from a copy or printed image may be affected by various factors, including the type of machine, condition of the machine, supplies employed, time since imaging, and environmental conditions. As many as possible of these variables should be controlled during the test. If available, a control sample with known characteristics should be run along with the test samples.

    5.2 This test method may be used to determine image resistance to damage or deterioration as a result of exposure to abrasive forces, such as automated document handling devices.

    5.3 This test method may be used for control of product quality, comparative analysis of machines, comparative analysis of imaging components, as well as a research and development tool.

    5.4 This test method is adaptable to images produced from most nonimpact printers and copiers. The printers shall be capable of utilizing the available program to produce the specified image.

    5.5 If the user wishes to simulate the type of damage or smudge resulting from paper rubbing against the printed image or from normal handling, consideration should be given to using either the Crockmeter Method (Test Method F1319), the Sutherland Rub Method, or the Gavarti GA-CAT Method.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the amount of image abraded from the surface of a document.

    1.2 This test method may be used to evaluate the abrasion resistance of images produced by business imaging products, including nonimpact printers, thermal transfer printers, and copiers. The machine shall be capable of producing the specified image.

    1.3 Testing focuses on determining the amount of imaged material removed, resulting from forces which impart a rubbing or grinding action principally on the top surface of the image.

    1.4 Comparison may be made between various imaging devices or the image-producing components of an individual machine.

    1.5 Other test methods employing the Crockmeter (Test Method F1319), Sutherland Rub Tester, and Gavarti GA-CAT may be employed to evaluate the smudge and abrasion characteristics. Results by these test methods are not necessarily equivalent to those obtained by this test method.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    F335 Terminology Relating to Electrostatic Imaging

    F1319 Test Method for Determination of Abrasion and Smudge Resistance of Images Produced from Business Copy Products (Crockmeter Method)


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 35.180 (IT terminal and other peripheral equipment)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 43212114(Digital image printers)


    DOI: 10.1520/F1478-06R11

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