ASTM F1356 - 08

    Standard Practice for Irradiation of Fresh and Frozen Red Meat and Poultry to Control Pathogens and Other Microorganisms

    Active Standard ASTM F1356 | Developed by Subcommittee: E61.05

    Book of Standards Volume: 12.02


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    ASTM F1356

    Significance and Use

    The principal purpose of irradiation is to control (reduce the number of) pathogenic bacteria in fresh or frozen red meat and poultry to ensure the safety of these foods for human consumption. Irradiation significantly reduces the numbers of vegetative pathogenic bacteria such as Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, or Yersinia enterocolitica.

    The process also inactivates parasites such as Trichinella spiralis and Toxoplasma gondii.

    The process may extend the shelf life of fresh red meat and poultry by reducing the numbers of viable, vegetative spoilage bacteria, such as Pseudomonas species.

    Radiation processing of fresh and frozen red meat and poultry is a critical control point (CCP) of a Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) program. It serves as an important measure to control any residual risk from pathogenic microorganisms before the product reaches the consumer.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice outlines procedures for the irradiation of fresh or frozen meat and poultry.

    Note 1—The Codex Alimentarius Commission defines meat as the edible part of any mammal and poultry as any domesticated bird, including chicken, turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea-fowls, or pigeons (CAC/MISC 5).

    Note 2—Current U.S. regulations limit the definition of livestock species to cattle, sheep, swine, goat, horse, mule, or other equine and poultry species to chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and guinea (2, 3).

    1.2 This practice covers absorbed doses used for inactivation of parasites and reduction of bacterial load in fresh and frozen red meat and poultry. Such doses are typically less than 10 kGy.

    1.3 This practice addresses irradiation of pre-packaged product for retail sale or for use as an ingredient in other products. It also addresses the in-line irradiation of unpackaged product.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    E170 Terminology Relating to Radiation Measurements and Dosimetry

    E2303 Guide for Absorbed-Dose Mapping in Radiation Processing Facilities

    F1416 Guide for Selection of Time-Temperature Indicators

    F1640 Guide for Selection and Use of Packaging Materials for Foods to Be Irradiated


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 67.120.10 (Meat and meat products)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 26142000(Irradiation equipment); 50110000(Meat and poultry products)


    DOI: 10.1520/F1356-08

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