ASTM F1337 - 10(2015)

    Standard Practice for Human Systems Integration Program Requirements for Ships and Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities

    Active Standard ASTM F1337 | Developed by Subcommittee: F25.07

    Book of Standards Volume: 01.07


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    Significance and Use

    6.1 Intended Use—Compliance with this practice provides the procuring organization with assurance that human users will be efficient, effective, and safe in the operation and maintenance of marine systems, equipment, and facilities. Specifically, it is intended to ensure the following:

    6.1.1 System performance requirements are achieved reliably by appropriate use and accommodation of the human component of the system.

    6.1.2 Usable design of equipment, software, and environment permits the human-equipment/software combination to meet system performance goals.

    6.1.3 System features, processes, and procedures do not constitute hazards to humans.

    6.1.4 Trade-offs between automated and manual operations results in effective human performance and appropriate cost control.

    6.1.5 Manpower, personnel, and training requirements are met.

    6.1.6 Selected HSI design standards are applied that are adequate and appropriate technically.

    6.1.7 Systems and equipments are designed to facilitate required maintenance.

    6.1.8 Procedures for operating and maintaining equipment are efficient, reliable, approved for maritime use, and safe.

    6.1.9 Potential error-inducing equipment design features are eliminated, or at least, minimized, and systems are designed to be error-tolerant.

    6.1.10 Layouts and arrangements of equipment afford efficient traffic patterns, communications, and use.

    6.1.11 Habitability facilities and working spaces meet environmental control and physical environment requirements to provide the level of comfort and quality of life for the crew that is conducive to maintaining optimum personnel performance and endurance.

    6.1.12 Hazards to human health are minimized.

    6.1.13 Personnel survivability is maximized.

    6.2 Scope and Nature of Work—HSI includes, but is not limited to, active participation throughout all phases in the life cycle of a marine system, including requirements definition, design, development, production, operations and decommissioning. HSI, as a systems engineering process, should be integrated fully into the larger engineering process. For the government, the HSI systems engineering process is manifested in both a more formalized, full scale system acquisition, as well as a non-developmental item acquisition. For the commercial industry, the system acquisition process is less formal and more streamlined. Each process is described below.

    6.3 Government Formalized, Full Scale Acquisition—The U.S. Government's acquisition process is composed of six steps, as illustrated in Fig. 3. Each phase is briefly summarized below.

    6.4.1 Identify Components—During the identify components phase, which is analogous to the capabilities requirements phase in the government process, basic requirements for the acquisition are defined. This includes, but is not necessarily limited to, operating specifications, applicable laws, human and marine system performance expectations, and estimated crew size. These requirements are used to determine the types of ships/offshore facility equipment, systems, structures, and other components that will be needed.

    6.4.1.1 HSI activities during this phase include identification of the HSI team, identification of appropriate HSI specifications, analysis of human performance requirements, development of HSI lessons learned, HSI risk analysis, and development of any planned HSI training for engineers and others on the acquisition team.

    6.4.2 Assess—During the assess phase, trade-offs between design alternatives are performed. This is analogous to the materials solutions analysis phase in the government acquisition process. The trade-off process focuses on comparing various alternatives for the equipment and other components identified during the previous phase, as well as exploring alternatives for the design for considerations such as space arrangements.

    6.4.2.1 HSI activities during this phase include preparing the procuring organization’s HSIP, participation in trade-off studies including performing human performance studies and evaluations, and preparation of HSI input to specifications and statements of work.

    6.4.3 Select—During the select phase, which is analogous to the government technology development and engineering and manufacturing development phases, the results of the Assess phase are used to “select” the design, in essence to develop the detailed design of the marine system. The design is developed with computer-aided design (CAD) drawings and specifications. Trade-offs continue to be made as the design is detailed out. A final design solution is defined in the design specification or specifications.

    6.4.3.1 HSI activities during this phase include the development of HSI input to design specifications; performance of any front-end analyses that support the evolution of the design such as task analysis, link analysis, critical valve analysis, and Hazardous Operations (HAZOPS); design reviews using CAD tools; and assessment of vendor HSIPs. Any planned training of engineers and other members of the acquisition team should occur during this phase as well. During this phase, the HSI specialist should consider how the design impacts planned manpower levels, crew complements, training requirements, and safety and occupational health considerations.

    6.4.4 Execute—During the execute phase, which is analogous to the government production and deployment phase, the marine system is built in accordance with the specifications developed during the Select phase. This phase also includes testing, commissioning, and, for offshore facilities, installation where it will be used. Where appropriate, the marine system is classified by appropriate classification societies.

    6.4.4.1 HSI activities during the phase focus primarily on monitoring the execution of the design to ensure that HSI issues and design considerations identified during the previous phases are incorporated into the finished marine system. This includes participation in testing activities, on-site visits, and reviews of any design modifications or engineering change orders.

    6.4.5 Operate—During the Operate phase, which is analogous to the government Operations and Support phase, the marine system is operated as designed.

    6.4.5.1 The primary HSI activity during this phase is to perform follow-on evaluations of the design to develop lessons learned for future acquisition efforts, as well as providing HSI input to any modernization efforts.

    6.5 Non-Developmental Item Acquisition—Both the government and commercial industries sometimes use a Non-Developmental Item (NDI) acquisition process.

    6.5.1 Government NDI—In the government, NDIs are commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies and systems that may provide the required capabilities and provide opportunities for quicker deployment at reduced development costs. NDI acquisitions normally follow a spiral acquisition process, but they can also be part of a standard acquisition strategy. In spiral development, the capability for each increment is pre-planned with a specific capability delivered at the increment’s conclusion. During each increment, there are a number of “spirals” that involve the developer, the user, and the tester with continuous feedback and experimentation.

    6.5.1.1 A NDI can be defined as a product or system that is available in the commercial marketplace; has been previously developed and is in use by federal, state, or local agencies of the U.S. or a government with which the U.S. has a mutual defense cooperation agreement; requires only minor modifications to meet the requirements; is being produced but does not meet the requirements above solely because it has not yet fully transitioned to deployment; or is not yet available in the commercial marketplace.

    6.5.1.2 HSI activities for a NDI acquisition focus on determining suitability of the NDI product for the intended user population and environment. This includes providing input to acquisition documents and addressing questions such as those listed in Table 4.

    6.5.1.3 HSI assists in the verification of the operational suitability and effectiveness of the NDI capability used to help selection through task analysis and usability testing. HSI also participates in market surveys where performance and suitability are compared, test and evaluation activities, and any required design modifications.

    6.5.2 Commercial Ship NDI—Commercial ship and offshore facility acquisitions frequently rely on a NDI approach that re-uses existing ship or platform designs with modifications or upgrades. The procuring organization provides the detailed specifications for the ship or platform to the shipyard. The shipyard comes back with a list of alternatives (products, systems, and components) for each aspect of the design. The procuring organization selects the alternatives that are integrated into the ship or installation. Each alternative offered to the procuring organization should have been developed in accordance with the requirements stipulated in this document. The integration process for the alternatives also should be in accordance with this practice.

    6.5.2.1 HSI activities include providing HSI input into the specifications, assessing alternatives from an HSI perspective, and evaluating the design during its construction. This includes the application of requirements contained in ASTM F1166 to the design, development and production of the system. The design should accommodate the fifth percentile (female) to the 95th percentile (male) dimensions with respect to anthropometric and biomechanical factors. Engineering change proposals, waivers and deviations should be subject to review by HSI specialists.

    6.6 Modernization—One key part of operations and support is modernization. In many cases in both government and commercial marine system development, existing designs are modified, retrofitted, or modernized to meet new mission requirements or to implement new technology. In these cases, design activities are focused on the modifications and their integration with the existing design rather than the complete marine system. These design activities follow a systems engineering process, much like new design.

    6.6.1 HSI activities during modernization may include any of those listed in the following sections but scaled to focus on the modifications and their integration with the existing design. HSI activities should focus on determining the impact of the modifications on existing manpower, personnel, and training (MPT) requirements and identifying how MPT considerations may need to be modified for successful integration. HSI activities also focus on ensuring that modifications are integrated into the existing marine system without any negative implications to human performance, safety, occupational health, survivability or habitability.

    1. Scope

    1.1 Objectives—This practice establishes and defines the processes and associated requirements for incorporating Human Systems Integration (HSI) into all phases of government and commercial ship, offshore structure, and marine system and equipment (hereafter referred to as marine system) acquisition life cycle. HSI must be integrated fully with the engineering processes applied to the design, acquisition, and operations of marine systems. This application includes the following:

    1.1.1 Ships and offshore structures.

    1.1.2 Marine systems, machinery, and equipment developed to be deployed on a ship or offshore structure where their design, once integrated into the ship or offshore structure, will potentially impact human performance, safety and health hazards, survivability, morale, quality of life, and fitness for duty.

    1.1.3 Integration of marine systems and equipment into ships and offshore structures including arrangements, facility layout, installations, communications, and data links.

    1.1.4 Modernization and retrofitting ships and offshore structures.

    1.2 Target Audience—The intended audience for this document consists of individuals with HSI training and experience representing the procuring activity, contractor or vendor personnel with HSI experience, and engineers and management personnel familiar with HSI methods, processes, and objectives. See 5.2.3 for guidance on qualifications of HSI specialists.

    1.3 Contents—This document is divided into the following sections and subsections.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Section
    and
    Subsection

    Title

    1

    Scope

    1.1

    Objectives

    1.2

    Target Audience

    1.3

    Contents

    2

    Human Systems Integration

    2.1

    Definition of Human Systems Integration

    2.2

    HSI Integration Process

    2.3

    HSI Program Requirements

    3

    Referenced Documents

    3.1

    Introduction

    3.2

    ASTM Standards

    3.3

    Commercial Standards and Documents

    3.4

    Government Standards and Documents

    4

    Terminology

    4.1.1

    Arrangement Drawing

    4.1.2

    Contractor

    4.1.3

    Critical Activity

    4.1.4

    Cultural Expectation

    4.1.5

    Function

    4.1.6

    Human Systems Integration

    4.1.7

    High Drivers

    4.1.8

    Human Error

    4.1.9

    Manning

    4.1.10

    Manpower

    4.1.11

    Marine System

    4.1.12

    Mission

    4.1.13

    Offshore Structure or Facility

    4.1.14

    Operational Requirements

    4.1.15

    Panel Layout Drawings

    4.1.16

    Procuring Organization

    4.1.17

    System

    4.1.18

    Task

    4.1.19

    User Interface

    4.1.20

    Vendor

    5

    Summary of Practice

    5.1

    HSI Design Objectives

    5.2

    Key Success Factors

    5.3

    HSI Plan

    5.4

    HSI Integrated Product Team

    5.6

    Quality Assurance

    5.7

    Nonduplication

    5.8

    Cognizance and Coordination

    6

    Significance of Use

    6.1

    Intended Use

    6.2

    Scope and Nature of Work

    6.3

    Government Formalized, Full Scale Acquisition

    6.4

    Commercial Acquisition Process

    6.5

    Non-Developmental Item Acquisition

    6.6

    Modernization

    7

    HSI Activities

    7.1

    Overview

    7.2

    HSI Lessons Learned

    7.3

    Early Marine Systems Analyses

    7.4

    Front End Analysis

    7.5

    HSI Risk Analysis

    7.6

    Manpower Analyses

    7.7

    Personnel Analyses

    7.8

    Training Analyses

    7.9

    Workload Analysis

    7.10

    HSI Input to Procurement Documents and Specifications

    7.11

    SOH Hazards Analyses

    7.12

    Personnel Survivability Analyses

    7.13

    Habitability Analysis

    7.14

    Health Service Analysis

    7.15

    Modeling and Simulation

    7.16

    User Interface (UI) Design

    7.17

    Usability Evaluations and UI Concept Exploration

    7.18

    Valve Criticality Analysis

    7.19

    Link Analysis

    7.20

    Design Reviews

    7.21

    Drawings and CAD Model Reviews

    7.22

    Inspections

    7.23

    Developmental Test and Evaluation

    7.24

    Operational Test and Evaluation

    8

    Documentation

    8.1

    Data Requirements

    8.2

    Traceability

    8.3

    Access to Data

    9

    Keywords

    Figure
    Number

    Figure Title

    Fig. 1

    Process for Determining the Need for an HSI Program

    Fig. 2

    Sample Outline of a Typical HSIP

    Fig. 3

    Government HSI Systems Engineering Process and the System Acquisition Life Cycle

    Fig. 4

    Phases of the Commercial Ship Acquisition Process

    Table
    Number

    Table Title

    Table 1

    Description of Government-Oriented HSI Domains

    Table 2

    Key Interactions among HSI Domains

    Table 3

    Minimum Qualifications for HSI Specialists

    Table 4

    Typical HSI Questions for NDI Acquisitions

    Table 5

    HSI Activities by Government Acquisition Phase

    Table 6

    HSI Activities by Commercial Industry Acquisition Phase

    Table 7

    Function Allocation Considerations

    Table 8

    Typical Task Analysis Information

    Table 9

    Example HSI Risk Probability Ratings

    Table 10

    Example HSI Risk Severity Ratings

    Table 11

    Example Human System Integration Risk Index


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    F1166 Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.180 (Ergonomics); 47.020.01 (General standards related to shipbuilding and marine structures)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 25111900(Marine craft systems and subassemblies)


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/F1337-10R15

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM F1337-10(2015), Standard Practice for Human Systems Integration Program Requirements for Ships and Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015, www.astm.org

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