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Significance and Use
Intended Use—Compliance with this practice provides the procuring organization with assurance that human users will be efficient, effective, and safe in the operation and maintenance of marine systems, equipment, and facilities. Specifically, it is intended to ensure the following:
System performance requirements are achieved reliably by appropriate use and accommodation of the human component of the system.
Usable design of equipment, software, and environment permits the human-equipment/software combination to meet system performance goals.
System features, processes, and procedures do not constitute hazards to humans.
Trade-offs between automated and manual operations results in effective human performance and appropriate cost control.
Manpower, personnel, and training requirements are met.
Selected HSI design standards are applied that are adequate and appropriate technically.
Systems and equipments are designed to facilitate required maintenance.
Procedures for operating and maintaining equipment are efficient, reliable, approved for maritime use, and safe.
Potential error-inducing equipment design features are eliminated, or at least, minimized, and systems are designed to be error-tolerant.
Layouts and arrangements of equipment afford efficient traffic patterns, communications, and use.
Habitability facilities and working spaces meet environmental control and physical environment requirements to provide the level of comfort and quality of life for the crew that is conducive to maintaining optimum personnel performance and endurance.
Hazards to human health are minimized.
Personnel survivability is maximized.
Scope and Nature of Work—HSI includes, but is not limited to, active participation throughout all phases in the life cycle of a marine system, including requirements definition, design, development, production, operations and decommissioning. HSI, as a systems engineering process, should be integrated fully into the larger engineering process. For the government, the HSI systems engineering process is manifested in both a more formalized, full scale system acquisition, as well as a non-developmental item acquisition. For the commercial industry, the system acquisition process is less formal and more streamlined. Each process is described below.
Government Formalized, Full Scale Acquisition—The U.S. Government's acquisition process is composed of six steps, as illustrated in Fig. 3. Each phase is briefly summarized below.
Capabilities Requirements—The Capabilities Requirements phase precedes the other acquisition phases and it is performed by the procuring organization. It focuses on defining operational goals and desired capabilities that will be used to guide marine system development; clarifying requirements; developing initial design concepts and alternatives; and assessing the feasibility and costs of development.
These are developed through the Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) process, as defined in the Joint Capabilities Integration Development System (JCIDS) , and captured in the Initial Capabilities Document (ICD). These are based on analyses of multiple concepts that consider affordability, technology maturity, and responsiveness.
Typical HSI inputs during this phase include defining human performance, habitability, and safety issues; identifying high level HSI requirements; identifying HSI risks, functions, and tasks from legacy or predecessor systems that will challenge human performance; identifying HSI lessons learned from legacy and/or predecessor systems; and identifying opportunities for workload reduction, manpower optimization, and enhancement of human performance, safety, and survivability.
Materials Solution Analysis—The objective of the Materials Solution Analysis phase is to refine the concept(s) for marine system design developed during the previous phase and to evaluate the technical soundness of the selected concept(s), as well as to determine if the concept(s) meet requirements.
This phase is entered once the ICD has been approved, and includes the conduct of an AoA by the Government. This includes developing and evaluating initial design concepts in response to the ICD.
Typical HSI inputs in this phase include task and requirement analyses; manpower, personnel, and training analyses; trade-off studies for alternatives; iterative assessments of user interface (UI) design concepts; input to design decisions and products; identification of human performance and safety requirements; development of the HSIP; initial development of habitability and quality of life requirements; and input into test and evaluation strategies.
Technology Development—The technology development phase focuses on detailing the design to the level required for the shipbuilder or system developer to be able to have a clear understanding of required features and develop an accurate estimate for the costs to construct. Outputs should include detailed drawings, design specifications, and design standards.
This phase, which is entered after Milestone A approval, focuses on reducing risk, selection of a final concept, if not already determined, and determining the technologies to be integrated into the full system design. During technology development, the government prepares the Capability Development Document (CDD) to support program initiation. The CDD builds on the ICD and provides the detailed operational performance parameters necessary to design the proposed system. During this phase of the design process, the safe disposal of the marine system should be estimated and planned, including documenting the use of hazardous materials contained in the system.
HSI activities during this phase include top down requirements analysis, human performance evaluations of technology alternatives, UI specification development, inputs to the CDD, personnel, habitability, and training requirements analysis, and developing crewing concepts. After CCD is completed, HSI activities in this phase include HSI input into the development of the preliminary design, detail or performance specification, and contract design including detailed requirements for habitability.
Engineering and Manufacturing Development—The focus of the engineering and manufacturing development phase is on performing the design and development activities required to achieve an initial operational capability, as well as demonstrating that the marine system will achieve operational requirements. In terms of ships, this might include development of the lead ship of its class.
This phase is entered after Milestone B. During this phase, the Capability Production Document (CPD) is prepared to update and extend the CDD.
HSI activities during this phase include development and prototyping of design concepts for UI, equipment access, maintainability, space layout, and machinery layouts; performing human performance studies and evaluations of prototypes and concepts; refining manpower estimates; developing training concepts; providing inputs to the CPD; and conducting safety and health risk assessments. Detail design is developed for compartment layout, equipment access, machinery layout, habitability facilities, and personnel access routes, etc. Human performance analysis is performed, manpower estimates are refined, and training concepts are developed.
Production and Deployment—The goal of the production and deployment phase is to achieve an operational capability that meets mission needs.
This phase is entered after Milestone C. The marine system is evaluated through Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E) for effectiveness and suitability, and the system may go into limited production before full production is approved.
HSI activities during this phase for government development include support to OT&E, capturing lessons learned for future builds and development cycles, and implementation of training and personnel plans.
Operations and Support—The objective of the Operations and Support phase is the execution of a support program that meets operational performance requirements; sustains the system in the most cost-effective manner over its total life cycle; provides for improvements, upgrades, and modernization; allows for safe disposal at the end of the system’s useful life; and provides for the elicitation of structured user feedback. Operations and Support has two major efforts: Sustainment and Disposal.
Sustainment strategies evolve and are refined throughout the life cycle, particularly during development of subsequent increments of an evolutionary strategy, modifications, upgrades, and re-procurement.
Disposal strategies at the end of the useful life of a system should focus on decommissioning in accordance with all legal and regulatory requirements and policy relating to safety (including explosives safety), security, and the environment.
HSI continues to be integrated into these stages of the life cycle through participation in all upgrades, retrofits, and modernization efforts. Emphasis is placed on understanding the potential impacts on manpower, personnel, training, human performance, habitability, quality of life, safety and occupational health, as well as on capturing lessons-learned for influencing future designs, training systems, and support of new technologies.
Commercial Acquisition Process—As indicated earlier, the commercial marine system acquisition process is more streamlined and less formal than the government process, but it follows a logical systems engineering like process. This process is illustrated in Fig. 4.
Identify Components—During the identify components phase, which is analogous to the capabilities requirements phase in the government process, basic requirements for the acquisition are defined. This includes, but is not necessarily limited to, operating specifications, applicable laws, human and marine system performance expectations, and estimated crew size. These requirements are used to determine the types of ships/offshore facility equipment, systems, structures, and other components that will be needed.
HSI activities during this phase include identification of the HSI team, identification of appropriate HSI specifications, analysis of human performance requirements, development of HSI lessons learned, HSI risk analysis, and development of any planned HSI training for engineers and others on the acquisition team.
1.1 Objectives—This practice establishes and defines the processes and associated requirements for incorporating Human Systems Integration (HSI) into all phases of government and commercial ship, offshore structure, and marine system and equipment (hereafter referred to as marine system) acquisition life cycle. HSI must be integrated fully with the engineering processes applied to the design, acquisition, and operations of marine systems. This application includes the following:
1.1.1 Ships and offshore structures.
1.1.2 Marine systems, machinery, and equipment developed to be deployed on a ship or offshore structure where their design, once integrated into the ship or offshore structure, will potentially impact human performance, safety and health hazards, survivability, morale, quality of life, and fitness for duty.
1.1.3 Integration of marine systems and equipment into ships and offshore structures including arrangements, facility layout, installations, communications, and data links.
1.1.4 Modernization and retrofitting ships and offshore structures.
1.2 Target Audience—The intended audience for this document consists of individuals with HSI training and experience representing the procuring activity, contractor or vendor personnel with HSI experience, and engineers and management personnel familiar with HSI methods, processes, and objectives. See 5.2.3 for guidance on qualifications of HSI specialists.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
F1166 Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities
ICS Number Code 13.180 (Ergonomics); 47.020.01 (General standards related to shipbuilding and marine structures)
UNSPSC Code 25111900(Marine craft systems and subassemblies)