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Significance and Use
5.1 The degree of image transferred by rubbing (crock) from a copy or printed image can be affected by various factors including the type of machine, the condition of the machine, supplies employed, time since imaging (ribbons) and environmental conditions. As many as possible of these variables should be controlled during the test. A control sample with known characteristics, if available, should be run along with the test samples.
5.5 Two different printers employing the same technology may yield prints with variations in optical densities. It may be possible to remove more toner or ink from the darker image yet the performance of the smudged image may be satisfactory. An optional evaluation procedure is available whereby the functional properties of the smudged or abraded image is examined if this is of primary concern.
1.2 The test method can be employed to evaluate the abrasion and smudge resistance of business imaging products produced by impact printers, thermal transfer printers, and non-impact printers or copiers.
1.3 The test method can be used to evaluate the amount of material removed from the sample (smudge or crock). Testing focuses on determining the amount of material deposited on the crockmeter cloth or redeposited in a new location on the sample. The test method can also be employed to measure performance characteristics for a product. The user should select test equipment which is appropriate for measuring the abrasion to the samples. Samples are tested before and after rubbing and comparisons of results made. In this test method product performance evaluations are optional.
1.4 Other test methods employing the Sutherland rub tester, Taber Abrader and Gavarti GA-C.A.T. can be employed to evaluate the smudge and abrasion characteristics. Results by these units are not necessarily equivalent to those obtained with the Crockmeter.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
F335 Terminology Relating to Electrostatic Imaging
F360 Practice for Image Evaluation of Electrostatic Business Copies
F497 Practice for Use of the Electric and Electronic Typewriter as a Test Instrument
F1174 Practice for Using a Personal Computer Printer as a Test Instrument
F1175 Practice for Using the Computer Impact Print-Out Unit as a Test Instrument for Manifold Comparison
ANSI StandardsPH2.18 Density Measurements-Special Conditions
ICS Number Code 37.100.10 (Reproduction equipment)
UNSPSC Code 43212114(Digital image printers)
ASTM F1319-94(2011), Standard Test Method for Determination of Abrasion and Smudge Resistance of Images Produced from Business Copy Products (Crockmeter Method), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.orgBack to Top