ASTM F1319 - 94(2011)

    Standard Test Method for Determination of Abrasion and Smudge Resistance of Images Produced from Business Copy Products (Crockmeter Method)

    Active Standard ASTM F1319 | Developed by Subcommittee: F05.04

    Book of Standards Volume: 15.09


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 The degree of image transferred by rubbing (crock) from a copy or printed image can be affected by various factors including the type of machine, the condition of the machine, supplies employed, time since imaging (ribbons) and environmental conditions. As many as possible of these variables should be controlled during the test. A control sample with known characteristics, if available, should be run along with the test samples.

    5.2 The test is designed to simulate the type of damage resulting from paper rubbing against the printed image.

    5.3 The test method can be used for control of product quality as well as a research and development tool.

    5.4 The method is adaptable to images produced from most types of impact and non-impact printers and copiers.

    5.5 Two different printers employing the same technology may yield prints with variations in optical densities. It may be possible to remove more toner or ink from the darker image yet the performance of the smudged image may be satisfactory. An optional evaluation procedure is available whereby the functional properties of the smudged or abraded image is examined if this is of primary concern.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for determining the amount of image transferred onto the surface of a white cloth by rubbing.

    1.2 The test method can be employed to evaluate the abrasion and smudge resistance of business imaging products produced by impact printers, thermal transfer printers, and non-impact printers or copiers.

    1.3 The test method can be used to evaluate the amount of material removed from the sample (smudge or crock). Testing focuses on determining the amount of material deposited on the crockmeter cloth or redeposited in a new location on the sample. The test method can also be employed to measure performance characteristics for a product. The user should select test equipment which is appropriate for measuring the abrasion to the samples. Samples are tested before and after rubbing and comparisons of results made. In this test method product performance evaluations are optional.

    1.4 Other test methods employing the Sutherland rub tester, Taber Abrader and Gavarti GA-C.A.T. can be employed to evaluate the smudge and abrasion characteristics. Results by these units are not necessarily equivalent to those obtained with the Crockmeter.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    F335 Terminology Relating to Electrostatic Imaging

    F360 Practice for Image Evaluation of Electrostatic Business Copies

    F497 Practice for Use of the Electric and Electronic Typewriter as a Test Instrument

    F1174 Practice for Using a Personal Computer Printer as a Test Instrument

    F1175 Practice for Using the Computer Impact Print-Out Unit as a Test Instrument for Manifold Comparison

    ANSI Standards

    PH2.18 Density Measurements-Special Conditions


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 37.100.10 (Reproduction equipment)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 43212114(Digital image printers)


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/F1319-94R11

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM F1319-94(2011), Standard Test Method for Determination of Abrasion and Smudge Resistance of Images Produced from Business Copy Products (Crockmeter Method), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.org

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