This specification specifies impact attenuation performance requirements for playground surfaces and surfacing materials and provides a means of determining impact attenuation performance using a test method that simulates the impact of a child's head with the surface. The test method quantifies impact in terms of g-max and Head Injury Criterion (HIC) scores. G-max is the measure of the maximum acceleration (shock) produced by an impact. The Head Injury Criterion or HIC score is an empirical measure of impact severity based on published research describing the relationship between the magnitude and duration of impact accelerations and the risk of head trauma..Two test methods shall be used to determine the impact attenuation of a playground surface or surfacing materials: critical fall height test, and installed surface performance test. The following apparatus shall be required for implementation of the two test methods: temperature measuring device, impact test system, acceleration measurement system, drop height measurement system, and battery-operated equipment.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
Significance and Use
The purpose of this specification is to establish minimum impact attenuation requirements for playground surfaces in order to reduce the risk of severe head injury from falls.
This specification provides a uniform means of quantifying the impact attenuation performance of playground surfaces and is appropriately used to compare the relative performance of different playground surfacing materials.
This specification is to be used as a reference for specifying the impact attenuation performance of playground surfaces.
This specification provides a uniform means of comparing the impact attenuation performance of installed playground surfaces with the performance requirements of this specification and with other performance requirements expressed in terms of drop height. Consequently, the specification is appropriately used to determine the actual impact attenuation performance of installed playground surfaces under ambient conditions of use.
In combination with data relating impact test scores to head injury, the information generated by application of this specification is suitable to estimate the relative risk of a severe head injury due to a fall.
1.1 This specification establishes minimum performance requirements for the impact attenuation of playground surfacing materials installed within the use zone of playground equipment.
1.2 This specification is specific to surfacing used in conjunction with playground equipment, such as that described in Specifications F1148, F1487, F1918, F1951, and F2075.
1.3 This specification establishes an impact attenuation performance criterion for playground surfacing materials; expressed as a critical fall height.
1.4 This specification establishes procedures for determining the critical fall height of playground surfacing materials under laboratory conditions. The laboratory test is mandatory for surfaces to conform to the requirements of this specification.
1.5 The laboratory test required by this specification addresses the performance of dry surfacing materials.
1.6 The critical fall height of a playground surfacing material determined under laboratory conditions does not account for important factors that have the potential to influence the actual performance of installed surfacing materials. Factors that are known to affect surfacing material performance include but are not limited to aging, moisture, maintenance, exposure to temperature extremes (for example, freezing), exposure to ultraviolet light, contamination with other materials, compaction, loss of thickness, shrinkage, submersion in water, and so forth.
1.7 This specification also establishes a procedure for testing installed playground surfaces in order to determine whether an installed playground surface meets the specified performance criterion.
1.8 The results of a field test determine conformance of installed playground surfacing materials with the criterion of this specification and are specific to the ambient conditions under which the test was performed.
1.9 The impact attenuation specification and test methods established in this specification are specific to the risk of head injury. There is only limited evidence that conformance with the requirements of this specification reduces the risk of other kinds of serious injury (for example, long bone fractures).
Note 1—The relative risk of fatality and of different degrees of head injury may be estimated using the information in Appendix X1, which shows the relationships between the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) scores of an impact and the probability of head injury.
1.10 This specification relates only to the impact attenuation properties of playground surfacing materials and does not address other factors that contribute to fall-related injuries. While it is believed that conformance with the requirements of this specification will reduce the risk of serious injury and death from falls, adherence to this specification will not prevent all injuries and deaths.
1.11 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.12 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
F355 Test Method for Impact Attenuation of Playing Surface Systems and Materials
F429 Test Method for Shock-Attenuation Characteristics of Protective Headgear for Football
F1148 Consumer Safety Performance Specification for Home Playground Equipment
F1487 Consumer Safety Performance Specification for Playground Equipment for Public Use
F1918 Safety Performance Specification for Soft Contained Play Equipment
F1951 Specification for Determination of Accessibility of Surface Systems Under and Around Playground Equipment
F2075 Specification for Engineered Wood Fiber for Use as a Playground Safety Surface Under and Around Playground Equipment
SAEJ211 Recommended Practice for Instrumentation for Impact Tests Available from Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001.
critical fall height; head impact; head injury criterion; HIC; impact; impact attenuation; impact test; injury; play; playground; play structure; shock; surface; Impact testing--sports applications/equipment; Instrumental measurement; Playground equipment--specifications; Sports equipment--specifications; Sports facilities playing surfaces--specifications; Velocity; Attenuation; Comparison techniques; Consumer safety specifications (playgrounds); Digitizers; Free fall test method; Head form velocity;
ICS Number Code 97.200.40 (Playgrounds)
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