ASTM F1166 - 07(2013)

    Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities

    Active Standard ASTM F1166 | Developed by Subcommittee: F25.07

    Book of Standards Volume: 01.07


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 The objective of this practice is to provide ergonomic design criteria for maritime vessels and structures to ensure that maritime systems and equipment are designed in compliance with requirements for human performance, human workload, health and safety, survivability, and habitability.

    4.2 Principles of Human Behavior:

    4.2.1 There are basic principles of human behavior that control or influence how each person performs in their workplace. Some of these behaviors are culturally derived, while others are general and uniform across all cultures and geographical regions of the world. These behaviors influence a person's physical, social, and psychological approach toward the work they do and how safely they do that work. Failure to satisfy these behavioral principles in the design of a ship or maritime structure can encourage, or even coerce, maritime personnel into taking unsafe risks in their everyday activities. It is, therefore, imperative that designers of ships and maritime equipment, systems, and facilities know these principles to provide a safe and efficient workplace for maritime personnel.

    4.2.2 These principles include:

    4.2.2.1 If the design of the ship or maritime facility is considered to be unsafe or inefficient by the crew, it will be modified by the users, often solving the initial problem but introducing others that may be as bad, or worse, than the original.

    4.2.2.2 Equipment design shall be such that it encourages safe use, that is, does not provide hardware and software that can be used in an unsafe manner.

    4.2.2.3 If the equipment or system is not designed to operate as the users' cultural and stereotypical expectations lead them to think that it will operate, the chance for human error is significantly increased.

    4.2.2.4 If equipment or systems are perceived by operators/maintainers to be too complex or require more effort to operate or maintain than they believe is necessary, they will always look for a “shortcut.” Further, this “shortcut” may be perceived as being safe when it is not.

    4.2.2.5 No amount of training, company or organizational policy, threats of retaliatory action, warning notes in a technical manual or training guide, or pleading with personnel to be safe on the job can overcome poor design that encourages, leads, or even coerces personnel into unsafe acts on the job. The most efficient way to prevent unsafe design from contributing to an accident is to eliminate the unsafe design.

    4.2.2.6 Equipment users tend to be very unimaginative when it comes to identifying unsafe features and they do not visualize the consequences of unsafe acts. Therefore, do not expect that an “obviously dangerous” task will always be recognized as such by every user.

    4.2.2.7 Designers shall consider the possibility for human error and design equipment so that incorrect use (deliberate or accidental) will result in little or no harm to the user.

    4.2.2.8 Equipment operators and maintainers tend to make guesses as to what a label, instruction, or operational chart states if it is not complete, legible, readable, and positioned correctly.

    4.2.2.9 Designers and engineers shall never use themselves as the standard against which a particular design is evaluated. People come in many shapes, sizes, mental capacities, and capabilities. Therefore, design for the full range of potential users, physically, mentally, and socially.

    4.2.2.10 People shall be protected against themselves. Designers cannot create an unsafe piece of equipment or system and expect the users to assume full responsibility for its safe use.

    4.2.2.11 Ease of equipment maintenance affects the equipment's reliability, that is, the harder it is to be maintained, the less it will be maintained.

    4.2.2.12 Equipment designed to require multiple operators working together simultaneously increases the likelihood of operator errors.

    4.2.2.13 Operational/maintenance procedures shall be clear, definitive, and comprehensive, otherwise, they will be misinterpreted or ignored.

    4.2.2.14 Structural items such as piping, cable trays, or any other item that appears strong enough to be used by a person to hold onto or stand on, and is placed in a convenient location to use for that purpose, will eventually be used for that purpose.

    4.2.2.15 Humans expect consistency in the design and arrangement of their workplace. Therefore, if that workplace, or any part thereof, appears in more than one place in their work environment, it is expected to be located and look the same way at every location.

    4.2.2.16 When controls and displays associated with particular pieces of equipment are placed on a console or control panel, they shall be located on that console or panel to replicate the actual location of the equipment on the ship or structure as both are viewed by the operator. Therefore, equipment that is to the operator's left as he/she faces the control station shall appear on the left of the control panel or console, and equipment to the right shall appear on the right side of the console or panel. This “spatial relationship” between the real world and the controls and displays that are associated with the equipments and systems of that world is extremely important in the design of ships and maritime structures.

    4.2.3 Humans develop behavioral patterns based on their cultural experiences. Designing a ship or structure that ignores or violate those culturally derived behavior patterns will inevitably lead to human error.

    4.3 Conflicts—Where conflicts exist between the design criteria contained in this practice and other sources of ergonomic design criteria, this practice should prevail except where the conflicting criteria were produced by a regulatory authority

    4.4 Coverage—The design of vessels, structures, systems, subsystems, and equipment shall use the design criteria contained herein to provide the following:

    4.4.1 Safe atmospheric conditions including temperature and humidity;

    4.4.2 Limits on acoustic noise and vibration that will prevent performance degradation and physiological damage;

    4.4.3 Space for personnel, their equipment, and free volume for the movements and activities they are required to perform for operational and maintenance tasks under both normal and emergency conditions;

    4.4.4 Physical, visual, auditory, and other communication links between individual personnel and between personnel and their equipment under both normal and emergency conditions;

    4.4.5 Efficient arrangement of operation and maintenance workplaces, equipment, structural elements, controls, and displays;

    4.4.6 Natural or artificial illumination at levels suitable to perform all operational and maintenance tasks under both normal and emergency conditions;

    4.4.7 Safe passageways, hatches, stairs, ladders, walkways, platforms, ramps, and other provisions for ingress, egress, and passage under both normal and emergency conditions;

    4.4.8 Provision for protective equipment and clothing, systems, equipments, vessels, and structures that are designed to be operated and maintained by personnel wearing the equipment and clothing;

    4.4.9 Compatibility of control/display interfaces with human information processing capability;

    4.4.10 Immediate, accurate, and pertinent feedback to the operator of equipment or system performance after each control movement or action taken by the operator;

    4.4.11 Designs that satisfy human behavioral needs such as spatial relationships, consistency, homeostasis, and cultural and equipment expectations;

    4.4.12 Provision for labels, hazard signage, instructions, and procedures that are clear, concise, and understandable;

    4.4.13 Provision for fail-safe designs in those areas in which failure can disable a vital system or cause catastrophic damage to equipment, injury to personnel, or loss of mission capability;

    4.4.14 Designs that minimize potential human error incidence in the operation and maintenance of the system, particularly under conditions of stress and designs that ensure that errors, having been committed, can be corrected in time (the design is error tolerant);

    4.4.15 Designs that minimize training time and costs and encourage simplicity so as to reduce personnel special skills or innate abilities required to operate or maintain them;

    4.4.16 Designs that minimize the adverse impact of ship motion on human performance and health and safety; and

    4.4.17 Designs that provide for safe and efficient operation and maintenance by user populations from all geographical regions of the maritime world.

    4.5 Standardization—Controls, displays, markings, coding, labeling, and arrangement schemes for equipment and panel layouts shall be uniform for those items or designs that appear more than once on the vessel or structure. Human-machine interfaces shall exhibit common design approaches based on conventions and conformance to operator and maintainer expectations.

    4.6 Off-the-Shelf Equipment—One criterion for selecting off-the-shelf commercial or government-furnished equipment should be the degree to which the equipment conforms to the design criteria of this practice. Where off-the-shelf equipment requires modification to interface with other equipment, the modification should be designed to comply with this practice.

    4.7 Minimize Personnel—The design objective of the vessel or structure, equipments, systems, and subsystems shall be to reduce the number of personnel involved, especially simultaneously, in completing a particular task. Another design objective shall be to optimize ship or system manning, defined as the minimum number of personnel consistent with human performance, workload and safety requirements, reliability, affordability, and risk constraints.

    4.8 Completeness—It is realized that no design guide or practice can cover every design requirement that might occur through the course of a ship or maritime structure's evolution. It is recognized that there will be occurrences in which a particular design requirement may have to be interpreted from the data that do exist. There may also be occasions in which design criteria may have to be acquired from a source other than this practice. When those occurrences arise, it is important that assistance be provided by trained human factors engineering (HFE) professionals familiar with this, and other, maritime-oriented design guidelines and standards and experienced in the application of these guidelines to the design of ships and maritime structures.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice provides ergonomic design criteria from a human-machine perspective for the design and construction of maritime vessels and structures and for equipments, systems, and subsystems contained therein, including vendor-purchased hardware and software.

    1.1.1 The focus of these design criteria is on the design and evaluation of human-machine interfaces, including the interfaces between humans on the one side and controls and displays, physical environments, structures, consoles, panels and workstations, layout and arrangement of ship spaces, maintenance workplaces, labels and signage, alarms, computer screens, material handling, valves, and other specific equipments on the other.

    1.2 The criteria contained within this practice shall be applied to the design and construction of all hardware and software within a ship or maritime structure that the human crew members come in contact in any manner for operation, habitability, and maintenance purposes.

    1.3 Unless otherwise stated in specific provisions of a ship or maritime structure design contract or specification, this practice is to be used to design maritime vessels, structures, equipment, systems, and subsystems to fit the full potential user population range of 5th % females to 95th % males.

    1.4 This practice is divided into the following sections and subsections:

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Section and
    Subsections

    Title

    1

    Scope

    2

    Referenced Documents

    3

    Terminology

    4

    Significance and Use

    5

    Controls

    5.1

    Principles of Control Design

    5.2

    General Design Guidelines

    5.3

    Control Movement

    5.4

    Control Spacing

    5.5

    Coding of Controls

    5.6

    Control Use and Design

    6

    Displays

    6.1

    Visual Displays

    6.2

    Location, Orientation, Lighting, and Arrangement of Displays

    6.3

    Display Illumination

    6.4

    Display Types

    6.5

    Audible Displays

    7

    Alarms

    7.1

    General Alarm Requirements

    7.2

    Visual Alarms

    7.3

    Audible Alarms

    7.4

    Voice Messages

    7.5

    Alarm Initiation Stations

    7.6

    Alarm Requirements by IMO

    8

    Integration of Controls, Displays, and Alarms

    8.1

    Principles of Design

    8.2

    Grouping Relationships—Principles of Arrangement

    8.3

    Separating Groupings

    8.4

    Position Relationships of Displays and Alarms

    8.5

    Position Relationships of Controls to Associated Displays and Alarms

    8.6

    Control and Display Movement Relationships

    8.7

    Spatial Relationship Between Controls, Displays, and Equipment

    8.8

    Alternative Approach to Grouping Design

    8.9

    Special Requirements for Control and Display Integration on Bridges

    9

    Anthropometry

    9.1

    General Design Requirements

    9.2

    Static Anthropometric Data

    10

    Workplace Arrangements

    10.1

    Basic Principles of Workplace Design

    10.2

    Seated Workstation

    10.3

    Standing Workstation

    10.4

    Kneeling Workstation

    10.5

    Squatting Workstation

    10.6

    Shelving

    10.7

    Status Boards and File Cabinets

    10.8

    Work Benches

    10.9

    Vertical Strainers and Filters

    10.10

    Reach Limitations at Workstations

    10.11

    Safety Eyewash Fountains and Showers

    10.12

    Pedestal-Mounted Controls and Displays

    10.13

    Hand Cranks and Pumps

    10.14

    Bulkhead-Mounted Equipment

    10.15

    Equipment Racks, Cabinets, and Individual Equipment Spacing

    10.16

    Consoles and Control Panels

    10.17

    Bridge Design

    11

    Access Aids: Stairs, Handrails, Railings, Vertical Ladders, Ramps, Doors, Lightening Holes, Hatches, Kick-Out Panels, Passageways and Walkways, and Work Platforms)

    11.1

    Stairs, Ladders, and Ramps

    11.2

    Stairs

    11.3

    Ramps

    11.4

    Vertical Ladders

    11.5

    Vertical Ladders with Safety Cages

    11.6

    Vertical Ladders with Positive Fall Protection Devices

    11.7

    Special Ladder Requirements

    11.8

    Handle/Hand Grab

    11.9

    Individual Rung Ladders

    11.10

    D-Ring Ladders

    11.11

    Handrails

    11.12

    Walkways, Passageways, and Alternate Means of Personnel Movement

    11.13

    Elevated Work Platforms

    11.14

    Hatches, Manways, Lightening Holes, Inspection Ports, and Kick-Out Panels

    11.15

    Doors and Arches

    11.16

    Permanent Means of Access (PMA)

    12

    Valve Placement, Orientation, and Location

    12.1

    General Design Requirements

    12.2

    Valve Criticality and Location

    12.3

    Valve-Mounting Heights and Orientations: Handwheel Operated

    12.4

    Valve-Mounting Heights and Orientations: Lever-Operated Valves

    12.5

    Alternative Valve Orientations

    12.6

    Valve Manifolds

    13

    Human-Computer Interface

    13.1

    General Design Requirements

    13.2

    System Operations

    13.3

    Computer Displays

    13.4

    Display Content

    13.5

    Display Coding

    13.6

    Dynamic Displays

    13.7

    Display Format

    13.8

    Textual Data Displays

    13.9

    Graphic Displays

    13.10

    Audio Displays

    13.11

    Data Entry

    13.12

    Interactive Control

    13.13

    Graphic Controls

    13.14

    Windows

    13.15

    Menus

    13.16

    Forms

    13.17

    Alarms

    13.18

    Language

    13.19

    Feedback

    13.20

    Prompts

    13.21

    Defaults

    13.22

    Error Management/Data Protection

    13.23

    Data Security

    13.24

    Help

    13.25

    Software

    13.26

    Data Transmission/Messaging

    13.27

    Input Devices

    13.28

    Cursors

    13.29

    Printing

    14

    Habitability

    14.1

    Noise

    14.2

    Indoor Climate

    14.3

    Lighting

    14.4

    Whole-body Vibration and Shock

    15

    Labeling

    15.1

    Design Criteria of Labels

    15.2

    Abbreviations

    15.3

    Symbols

    15.4

    Component Labels on Consoles and Panels

    15.5

    Equipment Identification Labels

    15.6

    Electrical System Labels

    15.7

    Room, Deck Space, and Void Identification Labels

    15.8

    Pipe Marker Labels

    15.9

    Safe Working Load Identification Labels

    15.10

    Load Weight Identification Labels

    15.11

    Hazard Identification Signs

    15.12

    Information Signs

    15.13

    Instruction Labels

    15.14

    Graphical Schematics or Diagrams

    15.15

    Orientation Plans

    15.16

    Emergency Instructions

    16

    Material Handling

    16.1

    Design to Support Manual Material Lifting and Carrying

    16.2

    Weight Lifting

    16.3

    Weight Carrying

    16.4

    Design to Push for Manual Material Handling

    16.5

    Design of Handles and Grasp Areas

    16.6

    Design of Auxiliary Hoisting and Carrying Devices

    16.7

    Hand Trucks and Wheeled Dollies

    16.8

    Crane Design

    17

    Maintenance

    17.1

    General Design Requirements

    17.2

    Maintenance Accessibility

    17.3

    Maintenance Environments

    17.4

    Lubrication

    17.5

    Cases

    17.6

    Covers

    17.7

    Fasteners

    17.8

    Hatches, Manways, Lightening Holes for Maintenance Access

    17.9

    Diagnostics and Troubleshooting

    17.10

    Equipment Modularization

    17.11

    Equipment Mounting and Installation

    17.12

    Standardization

    17.13

    Electrical Wires and Cables

    17.14

    Conductors

    17.15

    Connectors

    17.16

    Test Equipment

    17.17

    Fuses and Circuit Breakers

    17.18

    Hydraulic Systems

    17.19

    Stored Energy Devices

    17.20

    Pipe Flanges, Spools, and Blinds

    17.21

    Test and Sample Points

    18

    Hazards and Safety

    18.1

    Safety Labels, Signs, and Excluded Area Markings

    18.2

    General Workplace Hazards

    18.3

    General Equipment-Related Hazards

    18.4

    Electrical Hazards

    18.5

    Mechanical Hazards

    18.6

    Fluid Hazards

    18.7

    Safety Barriers

    18.8

    Fall Protection

    18.9

    Emergency Egress

    19

    Communications

    19.1

    Communication System Requirements

    19.2

    Microphones

    19.3

    Headsets

    19.4

    Loudspeakers

    19.5

    Telephone Systems

    Appendix X1

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Design Checklist


    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure

    Title

    1

    Control Movement Expectations

    2

    Foot-Operated Switches Design Requirements

    3

    Pedal Location and Design Requirements

    4

    Lateral Spacing for Pedals

    5

    Design Criteria for Discrete Rotary Controls

    6

    Separation Requirements for Discrete Rotary Controls

    7

    Dimension, Resistance, and Separation of Continuous Rotary Controls

    8

    Proper Mounting of Rapidly Operated Cranks

    9

    Dimensions, Resistance, and Separations Required for Cranks

    10

    Design Criteria for Pushbuttons

    11

    Two Types of Legend Switches (Backlit Pushbuttons)

    12

    Size, Displacement, and Resistance for Legend Switches

    13

    Design Requirements for Various Types of Toggle Switches

    14

    Design Requirements for Rocker Switches

    15

    Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Discrete Slide Switch Controls

    16

    Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Continuous Slide Controls

    17

    Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Levers

    18

    Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Slide Levers

    19

    Dimensions, Displacement, and Separation of Push-Pull Controls

    20

    Visual Lines of Sight

    21

    Primary and Secondary Fields-of-View

    22

    Design Criteria for Major, Intermediate, and Minor Scale Markings

    23

    Scale Graduation, Pointer Position, and Scale Numbering Alternatives

    24

    Scale Number Placement

    25

    Color and Shape Coding of Ranges on an Analog Display

    26

    Zero Position and Pointer Movement for Circular Dial Displays

    27

    Aligned Pointers for Rapid Check Readings

    28

    Digital Display Design Requirements

    29

    Grouping Controls and Displays by Common Function

    30

    Grouping Controls and Displays by Individual Equipments

    31

    Mirror-Imaged Arrangement of Individual Equipment Control and Display Groupings (Not Recommended)

    32

    Grouping Controls and Displays by Common Equipment

    33

    Grouping Controls and Displays by Sequence of Use

    34

    Grouping with Physical Separation

    35

    Grouping with Boundary Lines and Borders

    36

    Grouping with Colored and Shaded Pads

    37

    Grouping with Sub-panels

    38

    Position of Individual Controls and Associated Displays for Right-Handed Operator

    39

    Arrangement of Multiple Rows of Controls and Displays

    40

    Arrangement of Multiple Rows of Displays and a Single Row of Controls

    41

    Positional Relationship between Alarm, Display, and Control

    42

    Positional Relationship between Control Pointer and Status Indicator

    43

    Control and Display Movement Relationship

    44

    Spatial Relationship Between Controls, Displays, and Equipment

    45

    Spatial Relationships Between Equipment and Control Panels

    46

    Spatial Relationships for Redundant Controls and Displays

    47

    Panel Layout That Replicates Location of Equipment in Remote Space

    48

    Mimic of Physical Equipment Functional Layout

    49

    Mimic of Functional Groups Irrespective of Equipment Layout

    50

    Standing Body Dimensions

    51

    Seated Body Dimensions

    52

    Depth and Breadth Dimensions

    53

    Hand and Foot Dimensions

    54

    Gloved Hand Dimensions

    55

    Seated Workspace Dimensions

    56

    Dimensions for a Computer Workstation

    57

    Dimensions for Single or Multiple Personnel at a Table or Other Duty Station Not Requiring a Desk

    58

    Seating at CRT-Type Workstations

    59

    Clearance Behind a Seated Workstation

    60

    Control Mounting Height for Seated Personnel

    61

    Display Mounting Height for Seated Personnel

    62

    Control Mounting Height for Standing Personnel

    63

    Display Mounting Height for Standing Personnel

    64

    Control Mounting Height for a Kneeling Person

    65

    Display Mounting Height for Kneeling Personnel

    66

    Required Dimensions for a Kneeling Worker

    67

    Control Mounting Height for Squatting Personnel

    68

    Display Mounting Heights for Squatting Personnel

    69

    Required Dimensions for a Squatting Worker

    70

    Workplace Dimensions for Shelves with Full Access

    71

    Workplace Dimensions for Shelves Located Above a Cabinet

    72

    Workplace Dimensions for Shelves Requiring Vision Over the Top

    73

    Front Clearance Requirement for Lower Shelves

    74

    Mounting Height of Status Boards

    75

    Clearance in Front of Filing Cabinets

    76

    Workbench Dimensions

    77

    Safe Reach Distances Over an Obstacle or Barrier

    78

    Mounting Heights for Bulkhead-Mounted Equipment in Passageways

    79

    Mounting Heights for Common Electrical Fixtures

    80

    Direct Spatial Relationships Between Controls and Equipment

    81

    Spatial Relationship of Fore and Aft Equipment to Controls and Displays on a Console Located Athwartship

    82

    Seated Single-Operator Console Dimensions

    83

    Wraparound Seated Console

    84

    Special Width Console

    85

    Multi-Tiered Standing Console

    86

    Multi-Tiered Seated Console

    87

    Dimensions


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    Overall References

    ABS Guidance Notes for the Application of Ergonom April 2003

    MIL-STD-1472F Department of Defense Design Criteria Standard: Human Engineering


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 47.020.01 (General standards related to shipbuilding and marine structures)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 25111900(Marine craft systems and subassemblies)


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/F1166

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM F1166-07(2013), Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013, www.astm.org

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