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Significance and Use
5.1 With the advent of thick, highly angled aircraft transparencies, multiple imaging has been more frequently cited as an optical problem by pilots. Secondary images (of outside lights), often varying in intensity and displacement across the windscreen, can give the pilot deceptive optical cues of his altitude, velocity, and approach angle, increasing his visual workload. Current specifications for multiple imaging in transparencies are vague and not quantitative. Typical specifications state “multiple imaging shall not be objectionable.”
5.2 The angular separation of the secondary and primary images has been shown to relate to the pilot's acceptability of the windscreen. This procedure provides a way to quantify angular separation so a more objective evaluation of the transparency can be made. This procedure is of use for research of multiple imaging, quantifying aircrew complaints, or as the basis for windscreen specifications.
5.3 It is of note that the basic multiple imaging characteristics of a windscreen are determined early in the design phase and are virtually impossible to change after the windscreen has been manufactured. In fact, a perfectly manufactured windscreen has some multiple imaging. For a particular windscreen, caution is advised in the selection of specification criteria for multiple imaging, as inherent multiple imaging characteristics have the potential to vary significantly depending upon windscreen thickness, material, or installation angle. Any tolerances that might be established are advised to allow for inherent multiple imaging characteristics.
1.1 This test method covers measuring the angular separation of secondary images from their respective primary images as viewed from the design eye position of an aircraft transparency. Angular separation is measured at 49 points within a 20 by 20° field of view. This procedure is designed for performance on any aircraft transparency in a laboratory or in the field. However, the procedure is limited to a dark environment. Laboratory measurements are done in a darkened room and field measurements are done at night.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.2.1 Exception—The values in parentheses are for information only.
1.3 This standard possibly involves hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
ICS Number Code 17.180.01 (Optics and optical measurement in general)
UNSPSC Code 25200000(Aerospace systems and components and equipment)
ASTM F1165-15, Standard Test Method for Measuring Angular Displacement of Multiple Images in Transparent Parts, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015, www.astm.orgBack to Top