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Significance and Use
Significance—The data obtained from a compression test may include the yield strength, the yield point, Young's modulus, the stress-strain curve, and the compressive strength (see Terminology E6). In the case of a material that does not fail in compression by a shattering fracture, compressive strength is a value that is dependent on total strain and specimen geometry.
Use—Compressive properties are of interest in the analyses of structures subject to compressive or bending loads or both and in the analyses of metal working and fabrication processes that involve large compressive deformation such as forging and rolling. For brittle or nonductile metals that fracture in tension at stresses below the yield strength, compression tests offer the possibility of extending the strain range of the stress-strain data. While the compression test is not complicated by necking as is the tension test for certain metallic materials, buckling and barreling (see Section 3) can complicate results and should be minimized.
1.1 These test methods cover the apparatus, specimens, and procedure for axial-load compression testing of metallic materials at room temperature (Note 1). For additional requirements pertaining to cemented carbides, see Annex A1.
Note 1—For compression tests at elevated temperatures, see Practice E209.
1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
B557 Test Methods for Tension Testing Wrought and Cast Aluminum- and Magnesium-Alloy Products
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems
E111 Test Method for Youngs Modulus, Tangent Modulus, and Chord Modulus
E171 Practice for Conditioning and Testing Flexible Barrier Packaging
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E209 Practice for Compression Tests of Metallic Materials at Elevated Temperatures with Conventional or Rapid Heating Rates and Strain Rates
E251 Test Methods for Performance Characteristics of Metallic Bonded Resistance Strain Gauges
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
ICS Number Code 77.040.10 (Mechanical testing of metals)