Significance and Use
4.1 Measurements of bending strength and modulus of elasticity in bending should be made for materials whose principal stressing mode is bending. For many materials, the tensile and compressive moduli are somewhat different. Since the bending modulus is a combination of the tensile and compressive moduli, it is often different from each of them.
4.2 Precise measurements of the modulus of elasticity in bending and bending strength require due regard for numerous variables that may affect their determination. These include (1) characteristics such as specimen orientation with respect to the rolling direction, grain size, residual stresses, previous strain history, dimensions and specimen preparation, orientation of deformed grains relative to the direction of the normal stress; and (2) test conditions, such as tem- perature, temperature variations, condition of the test equipment and adherence to the recommended test procedure.
1.1 This standard describes three test methods for determining the modulus of elasticity in bending and the bending strength of metallic strips or sheets intended for the use in flat springs:
1.1.1 Test Method A—a cantilever beam,
1.1.2 Test Method B—a three-point loaded beam (that is, a beam resting on two supports and centrally loaded), and
1.1.3 Test Method C—a four-point loaded beam (that is, a beam resting on two supports and loaded at two points equally spaced from each support).
1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E111 Test Method for Youngs Modulus, Tangent Modulus, and Chord Modulus
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
ICS Number Code 21.160 (Springs)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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