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    ASTM E848 - 94(2012)

    Standard Guide for Safety and Health Requirements Relating to Occupational Exposure to Water-Insoluble Chromates

    Active Standard ASTM E848 | Developed by Subcommittee: D01.21

    Book of Standards Volume: 06.01

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    Significance and Use

    4.1 This guide includes chromates that are not readily soluble in water and that have water solubilities (Chromate ION) within the range of the more soluble calcium chromate and the much less soluble lead chromate. The major occupations involving potential exposure to insoluble chromates are in roasting of chromite ore, the manufacture of chromate pigments, the manufacture of coatings containing chromate pigments, and spray painting with these coatings. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that trivalent chromium compounds are carcinogenic.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide covers control procedures for the safe production, storage, transportation, and handling of only the hexavalent chromium compounds found in Table 1 and their various hydrates, and mixtures of coprecipitates of the same regardless of crystalline form.

    TABLE 1 Examples of Some Hexavalent Chromium Compounds

    Chemical Name


    Color Index NameA

    Barium chromate


    Pigment Yellow 31

    Barium potassium chromate


    Pigment Yellow 31

    Basic copper chromate

     xCu(OH) 2

    Not listed

    Basic cadmium chromate


    Pigment Yellow 44

    Basic lead chromate


    Pigment Orange 21

    Bismuth basic dichromate


    Pigment Red 103

    Calcium chromate


    None assigned

    “Chromic chromate”
     (calcium chromate sinter)

    xCaO yCr2O 3
     zCrO 3

    Pigment Yellow 33
    Not listed

    Ferric chromate


    Pigment Yellow 45

    Basic ferric chromate


    Pigment Yellow 45

    Lead chromate


    Pigment Yellow 34

    Lead molybdochromate


    Pigment Red 104

    Potassium zinc chromate

    K2O 4ano·4Cr4O3

    Pigment Yellow 36

    Strontium chromate


    Pigment Yellow 32

    Zinc chromate


    Pigment Yellow 36

    A For Classification, not Toxicology.

    1.2 This guide is not intended to cover ( a) such “soluble” chromates as chromates of sodium, potassium, magnesium, or ammonium; (b) soluble bichromates; (c) chromic acid; (d) volatile chromyl compounds; (e) any trivalent chromium compound; or (f) elemental chromium. Omission of said compounds or classes of compounds should not be construed to mean that they may be handled without due regard to their particular physical, chemical, and toxicological hazards (9, 10, 11).

    1.3 The chromate ion, CrO4−2 , depending upon the acidity, complexes to form di-, tri-, and higher polychromates; hence, the chromates listed in Table 1 may contain mixtures of polychromates, depending on the method of isolation and end use.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of whoever uses this standard to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (For more specific precautionary information see Section 5.)

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ANSI Standards

    Z129.1 Precautionary Labeling for Hazardous Industrial Chemicals

    NIOSH Publications

    “Criteria for a Recommended Standard Chromiu

    OSHA Standards

    29 CFR 1910.1025 Lead

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.100 (Occupational safety. Industrial hygiene)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 93141808(Occupational health or safety services)

    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/E0848-94R12

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM E848-94(2012), Standard Guide for Safety and Health Requirements Relating to Occupational Exposure to Water-Insoluble Chromates, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012,

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