ASTM E81 - 96(2011)

    Standard Test Method for Preparing Quantitative Pole Figures

    Active Standard ASTM E81 | Developed by Subcommittee: E04.11

    Book of Standards Volume: 03.01


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    Significance and Use

    Pole figures are two-dimensional graphic representations, on polar coordinate paper, of the average distribution of crystallite orientations in three dimensions. Data for constructing pole figures are obtained with X-ray diffractometers, using reflection and transmission techniques.

    Several alternative procedures may be used. Some produce complete pole figures. Others yield partial pole figures, which may be combined to produce a complete figure.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the use of the X-ray diffractometer to prepare quantitative pole figures.

    1.2 The test method consists of several experimental procedures. Some of the procedures (1-5) permit preparation of a complete pole figure. Others must be used in combination to produce a complete pole figure.

    1.3 Pole figures (6) and inverse pole figures (7-10) are two-dimensional averages of the three-dimensional crystallite orientation distribution. Pole figures may be used to construct either inverse pole figures (11-13) or the crystallite orientation distribution (14-21). Development of series expansions of the crystallite orientation distribution from reflection pole figures (22, 23) makes it possible to obtain a series expansion of a complete pole figure from several incomplete pole figures. Pole figures or inverse pole figures derived by such methods shall be termed calculated. These techniques will not be described herein.

    1.4 Provided the orientation is homogeneous through the thickness of the sheet, certain procedures (1-3) may be used to obtain a complete pole figure.

    1.5 Provided the orientation has mirror symmetry with respect to planes perpendicular to the rolling, transverse, and normal directions, certain procedures (4, 5, 24) may be used to obtain a complete pole figure.

    1.6 The test method emphasizes the Schulz reflection technique (25). Other techniques (3, 4, 5, 24) may be considered variants of the Schulz technique and are cited as options, but not described herein.

    1.7 The test method also includes a description of the transmission technique of Decker, et al (26), which may be used in conjunction with the Schulz reflection technique to obtain a complete pole figure.

    1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 77.040.99 (Other methods of testing metals)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 41102704(X ray diffraction equipment)


    DOI: 10.1520/E0081-96R11

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