Significance and Use
Tension tests provide information on the strength and ductility of materials under uniaxial tensile stresses. This information may be useful in comparisons of materials, alloy development, quality control, and design under certain circumstances.
The results of tension tests of specimens machined to standardized dimensions from selected portions of a part or material may not totally represent the strength and ductility properties of the entire end product or its in-service behavior in different environments.
These test methods are considered satisfactory for acceptance testing of commercial shipments. The test methods have been used extensively in the trade for this purpose.
1.1 These test methods cover the tension testing of metallic materials in any form at room temperature, specifically, the methods of determination of yield strength, yield point elongation, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area.
1.2 The gage lengths for most round specimens are required to be 4D for E8 and 5D for E8M. The gage length is the most significant difference between E8 and E8M Test Specimens Test specimens made from powder metallurgy (P/M) materials are exempt from this requirement by industry-wide agreement to keep the pressing of the material to a specific projected area and density.
1.3 Exceptions to the provisions of these test methods may need to be made in individual specifications or test methods for a particular material. For examples, see Test Methods and Definitions A370 and Test Methods B557, and B557M.
1.4 Room temperature shall be considered to be 10 to 38°C [50 to 100°F] unless otherwise specified.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as separate from inch/pound units. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore each system must be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
A356/A356M Specification for Steel Castings, Carbon, Low Alloy, and Stainless Steel, Heavy-Walled for Steam Turbines
A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products
B557 Test Methods for Tension Testing Wrought and Cast Aluminum- and Magnesium-Alloy Products
B557M Test Methods for Tension Testing Wrought and Cast Aluminum- and Magnesium-Alloy Products (Metric)
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
E83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems
E345 Test Methods of Tension Testing of Metallic Foil
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
E1012 Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
E1856 Guide for Evaluating Computerized Data Acquisition Systems Used to Acquire Data from Universal Testing Machines
accuracy; bending stress; discontinuous yielding; drop-of-the-beam; eccentric force application; elastic extension; elongation; extension-under-load; extensometer; force; free-running crosshead speed; gage length; halt-of-the force; percent elongation; plastic extension; preload; rate of stressing; rate of straining; reduced section; reduction of area; sensitivity; strain; stress; taring; tensile strength; tension testing; yield point elongation; yield strength; Structural steel (SS); Structural steel (SS) plate; Taring; Tensile properties/testing--metallic materials; Yield strength and yield point; Alloy steel plate; Area reduction; Bending stress; Carbon steel; Carbon steel plate; Carbon steel wire; Castings; Cast iron (testing); Copper alloy castings--specifications; Discontinuous yielding; Drop-of-the-beam; Ductility--metals/alloys; Eccentric force application; Elastic extension; Elongation--metallic materials; Extension-under-load; Extensometers; Free-running crosshead speed; Halt-of-the-force; Iron; Metal electrical conductors; Percent elongation; Plastic extension; Plate materials (general); Quality control (QC)--metals; Rate of stressing/straining; Round specimens; Sheet materials (general); Sheet metal; Steel; Steel pipe; Steel sheet/strip; Steel tube; Steel wire rod; Strength; Stress--metallic materials
ICS Number Code 77.040.10 (Mechanical testing of metals)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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