ASTM E778 - 08

    Standard Test Methods for Nitrogen in the Analysis Sample of Refuse-Derived Fuel

    Active Standard ASTM E778 | Developed by Subcommittee: D34.03

    Book of Standards Volume: 11.04


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    ASTM E778

    Significance and Use

    The standard sample is available to producers and users of RDF as a method for determining the weight percent of nitrogen in the analysis sample.

    Nitrogen is part of the ultimate analysis and can be used for calculation of combustion parameters.



    A = electric heater
    B = Kjeldahl digestion flask
    C = Kjeldahl connecting bulb
    D = condenser
    E = connecting tube
    F = receiving flask

    FIG. 1 Kjeldahl Distillation Apparatus

    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of total Kjeldahl nitrogen in prepared analysis samples of solid forms of refuse-derived fuel (RDF). The procedures measure free ammonia or ammonia formed from the conversion of organic nitrogenous compounds such as amino acids and proteins. However, the procedures may not convert the nitrogenous compounds of some wastes to ammonia. Examples of such compounds that may not be measured are nitro compounds, hydrozones, oxines, nitrates, semicarbazones, pyridines, and some refractory tertiary amines.

    1.2 Two alternatives are described for the final determination of the ammonia, the Kjeldahl-Gunning Test Method and the Acid-Titration Test Method.

    1.3 The analytical data from these test methods are to be reported as part of the ultimate analysis where ultimate analysis is requested.

    1.4 These test methods may be applicable to any waste material from which a laboratory analysis sample can be prepared.

    1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements see 8.4.1 and Section 9.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D1193 Specification for Reagent Water

    D5681 Terminology for Waste and Waste Management

    E180 Practice for Determining the Precision of ASTM Methods for Analysis and Testing of Industrial and Specialty Chemicals

    E200 Practice for Preparation, Standardization, and Storage of Standard and Reagent Solutions for Chemical Analysis

    E790 Test Method for Residual Moisture in a Refuse-Derived Fuel Analysis Sample

    E791 Test Method for Calculating Refuse-Derived Fuel Analysis Data from As-Determined to Different Bases

    E829 Practice for Preparing Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) Laboratory Samples for Analysis


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.160.10 (Solid fuels)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 77100000(Environmental management)


    DOI: 10.1520/E0778-08

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