ASTM E746 - 07(2014)

    Standard Practice for Determining Relative Image Quality Response of Industrial Radiographic Imaging Systems

    Active Standard ASTM E746 | Developed by Subcommittee: E07.01

    Book of Standards Volume: 03.03


      Format Pages Price  
    PDF 7 $43.00   ADD TO CART
    Hardcopy (shipping and handling) 7 $43.00   ADD TO CART


    Significance and Use

    4.1 This standard provides a practice for RIQR evaluations of film and non-film imaging systems when exposed through steel or plastic materials. Three alternate data evaluation methods are provided in Section 9. Determining RIQR requires the comparison of at least two radiographs or radiographic processes whereby the relative degree of image quality difference may be determined using the EPS plaque arrangement of Fig. 1 as a relative image quality indicator (RIQI). In conjunction with the RIQI, a specified radiographic technique or method must be established and carefully controlled for each radiographic process. This practice is designed to allow the determination of subtle changes in EPS that may arise to radiographic imaging system performance levels resultant from process improvements/changes or change of equipment attributes. This practice does not address relative unsharpness of a radiographic imaging system as provided in Practice E2002. The common element with any relative comparison is the use of the same RIQI arrangement for both processes under evaluation.

    4.2 In addition to the standard evaluation method described in Section 9, there may be other techniques/methods in which the basic RIQR arrangement of Fig. 1 might be utilized to perform specialized assessments of relative image quality performance. For example, other radiographic variables can be altered to facilitate evaluations provided these differences are known and documented for both processes. Where multiple radiographic process variables are evaluated, it is incumbent upon the user of this practice to control those normal process attributes to the degree suitable for the application. Specialized RIQR techniques may also be useful with micro focus X-ray, isotope sources of radiation or with the use of non-film radiographic imaging systems. RIQR may also be useful in evaluating imaging systems with alternate materials (RIQI and base plate) such as copper-nickel or aluminum. When using any of these specialized applications, the specific method or techniques used shall be as specified and approved by the cognizant engineering authority.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This standard provides a practice whereby industrial radiographic imaging systems may be comparatively assessed using the concept of relative image quality response (RIQR). The RIQR method presented within this practice is based upon the use of equivalent penetrameter sensitivity (EPS) described within Practice E1025 and subsection 5.2 of this practice. Figure 1 illustrates a relative image quality indicator (RIQI) that has four different steel plaque thicknesses (.015, .010, .008, and .005 in.) sequentially positioned (from top to bottom) on a 3/4-in. thick steel plate. The four plaques contain a total of 14 different arrays of penetrameter-type hole sizes designed to render varied conditions of threshold visibility ranging from 1.92 % EPS (at the top) to .94 % EPS (at the bottom) when exposed to nominal 200 keV X-ray radiation. Each “EPS” array consists of 30 identical holes; thus, providing the user with a quantity of threshold sensitivity levels suitable for relative image qualitative response comparisons.

    1.2 This practice is not intended to qualify the performance of a specific radiographic technique nor for assurance that a radiographic technique will detect specific discontinuities in a specimen undergoing radiographic examination. This practice is not intended to be used to classify or derive performance classification categories for radiographic imaging systems. For example, performance classifications of radiographic film systems may be found within Test Method E1815.

    1.3 This practice contains an alternate provision whereby industrial radiographic imaging systems may be comparatively assessed using Lucite plastic material exposed to nominal 30 keV X-ray radiation. The RIQI for this alternate evaluation is also illustrated in Fig. 1, except the plaque and base plate materials are constructed of Lucite plastic in lieu of steel. EPS values for Lucite plastic are provided in Section 5 based upon the use of a 13/8-in. thick Lucite base plate. For high-energy X-ray applications (4 to 25 MeV), Test Method E1735 provides a similar RIQR standard practice.

    1.4 The values stated in SI are to be regarded as the standard.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    B152/B152M Specification for Copper Sheet, Strip, Plate, and Rolled Bar

    E999 Guide for Controlling the Quality of Industrial Radiographic Film Processing

    E1025 Practice for Design, Manufacture, and Material Grouping Classification of Hole-Type Image Quality Indicators (IQI) Used for Radiology

    E1079 Practice for Calibration of Transmission Densitometers

    E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations

    E1735 Test Method for Determining Relative Image Quality of Industrial Radiographic Film Exposed to X-Radiation from 4 to 25 MeV

    E1815 Test Method for Classification of Film Systems for Industrial Radiography

    E2002 Practice for Determining Total Image Unsharpness in Radiology

    ANSI Standard

    ANSIPH2.19 Photography Density Measurements-Part 2: Geometric Conditions for Transmission Density


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 37.040.25 (Radiographic films)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 30102204(Steel plate)


    DOI: 10.1520/E0746-07R14

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    ASTM E746

    Citing ASTM Standards
    Back to Top