ASTM E446 - 10

    Standard Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings Up to 2 in. (50.8 mm) in Thickness

    Active Standard ASTM E446 | Developed by Subcommittee: E07.02

    Book of Standards Volume: 03.03


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    Significance and Use

    Graded reference radiographs are intended to provide a guide enabling recognition of specific casting discontinuity types and relative severity levels that may be encountered during typical fabrication processes. Reference radiographs containing ungraded discontinuities are provided as a guide for recognition of a specific casting discontinuity type where severity levels are not needed. These reference radiographs are intended as a basis from which manufacturers and purchasers may, by mutual agreement, select particular discontinuity classes to serve as standards representing minimum levels of acceptability (see Sections 6 and 7).

    Reference radiographs represented by this standard may be used, as agreed upon in a purchaser supplier agreement, for energy levels, thicknesses or both outside the range of this standard when determined applicable for the casting service application. Severity levels of similar discontinuity categories and energy level range of E186 reference radiographs may alternatively be used, as determined appropriate for the casting service application, if so agreed upon in the purchaser supplier agreement (see Note 2 and 5.1).

    Procedures for evaluation of production radiographs using applicable reference radiographs of this standard are prescribed in Section 8; however, there may be manufacturing-purchaser issues involving specific casting service applications where it may be appropriate to modify or alter such requirements. Where such modifications may be appropriate for the casting application, all such changes shall be specifically called-out in the purchaser supplier agreement or contractual document. Section 9 addresses purchaser supplier requisites for where weld repairs may be required.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These reference radiographs illustrate various categories, types, and severity levels of discontinuities occurring in steel castings that have section thicknesses up to 2 in. (50.8 mm) (see Note 2). The reference radiograph films are an adjunct to this standard and must be purchased separately from ASTM International, if needed (see 2.2). Categories and severity levels for each discontinuity type represented by these reference radiographs are described in 1.2.

    Note 1—The basis of application for these reference radiographs requires a prior purchaser supplier agreement of radiographic examination attributes and classification criterion as described in Sections 4, 6, and 7 of this standard.

    Note 2—Reference radiographs previously used for this thickness range carried the designation E71, but included a now rarely used gamma source, that is, radium. The current document is also updated by inclusion of several recognized shrinkage or C categories and by elimination of the crack and hot tear categories except for one example of each of these discontinuity types. Reference radiographs for thicker sections may be found in Reference Radiograph standards E186 and E280. Reference Radiograph standards E446 and E186 provide some overlap of severity levels for similar discontinuity categories within the same energy level range (see 4.2, 5.1, and 6.3).

    1.2 These reference radiographs consist of three separate volumes (see Note 3) as follows: (I) medium voltage (nominal 250-kV) X rays. (II) 1-MV X rays and Iridium-192 radiation, and (III) 2-MV to 4-MV X rays and cobalt-60 radiation. Unless otherwise specified in a purchaser supplier agreement (see 1.1), each volume is for comparison only with production radiographs produced with radiation energy levels within the thickness range covered by this standard. Each volume consists of six categories of graded discontinuities of increasing severity level and four categories of ungraded discontinuities. Reference radiographs containing ungraded discontinuities are provided as a guide for recognition of a specific casting discontinuity type where severity levels are not needed. Following is a list of discontinuity categories, types and severity levels for the adjunct reference radiographs of this standard:

    1.2.1 Category AGas porosity; severity levels 1 through 5.

    1.2.2 Category BSand and slag inclusions; severity levels 1 through 5.

    1.2.3 Category CShrinkage; 4 types:

    1.2.3.1 CaSeverity levels 1 through 5.

    1.2.3.2 CbSeverity levels 1 through 5.

    1.2.3.3 CcSeverity levels 1 through 5.

    1.2.3.4 Cdcombinations of linear, feathery and sponge shrinkageSeverity levels 1 through 5.

    1.2.4 Category DCrack; 1 illustration.

    1.2.5 Category EHot tear; 1 illustration.

    1.2.6 Category FInsert; 1 illustration.

    1.2.7 Category GMottling; 1 illustration.

    Note 3—The reference radiographs consist of the following:
    Volume I: Medium Voltage (nominal 250 kVp) X-Ray Reference Radiographsset of 34 illustrations (nominal 5 by 7 in.) in a 15 by 17-in. ring binder.
    Volume II: 1-MV X Rays and Iridium-192 Reference RadiographsSet of 34 illustrations (nominal 5 by 7 in.) in a 15 by 17-in. ring binder.
    Volume III: 2-MV to 4-MV X Rays and Cobalt-60 Reference RadiographsSet of 34 illustrations (nominal 5 by 7 in.) in a 15 by 17-in. ring binder.

    Note 4—Although Category GMottling is listed for all three volumes, the appearance of mottling is dependent on the level of radiation energy. Mottling appears reasonably prominent in Volume I; however, because of the higher radiation energy levels mottling may not be apparent in Volume II nor Volume III.

    1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. SI values are shown for information only.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    E94 Guide for Radiographic Examination

    E186 Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (2 to 412-in. (50.8 to 114-mm)) Steel Castings

    E242 Reference Radiographs for Appearances of Radiographic Images as Certain Parameters are Changed

    E280 Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (412 to 12-in. (114 to 305-mm)) Steel Castings

    E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations


    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/E0446-10

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM E446-10, Standard Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings Up to 2 in. (50.8 mm) in Thickness, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2010, www.astm.org

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