ASTM E431 - 96(2011)

    Standard Guide to Interpretation of Radiographs of Semiconductors and Related Devices

    Active Standard ASTM E431 | Developed by Subcommittee: E07.02

    Book of Standards Volume: 03.03


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    Significance and Use

    Illustrations provided in this guide are intended for use as references to aid in interpreting film or nonfilm images resulting from x-ray examinations (see Table 1) to ascertain quality of assembly and workmanship.

    Required attributes of the design features or other construction details are not provided but are to be established as mutually agreed upon by manufacturers and users of these devices. Many devices share common assembly features; thus, these interpretations can be used for components not illustrated.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide provides illustrations of radiographs of semiconductors and related devices. Low powered transistors (through the TO-11 case configuration), diodes, low-power rectifiers, power devices, and integrated circuits are illustrated with common assembly features. Particular areas of construction are featured for these devices detailing critical points of design or assembly.

    1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    E801 Practice for Controlling Quality of Radiological Examination of Electronic Devices

    E1161 Practice for Radiologic Examination of Semiconductors and Electronic Components

    E1255 Practice for Radioscopy

    E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 31.080.01 (Semi-conductor devices in general)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 32131003(Semiconductor wafers)


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/E0431-96R11

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM E431-96(2011), Standard Guide to Interpretation of Radiographs of Semiconductors and Related Devices, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.org

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