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Significance and Use
5.2 GWT does not provide a direct measurement of wall thickness, but is sensitive to a combination of the CSC (or reflection coefficient) and circumferential extent and axial extent of any metal loss. Based on this information, a classification of the severity can be assigned.
5.3 The GWT method provides a screening tool to quickly identify any discontinuity along the pipe. Where a possible defect is found, a follow-up inspection of suspected areas with ultrasonic testing or other NDT methods is normally required to obtain detailed thickness information, nature, and extent of damage.
5.6 This practice only covers the application specified in the scope. The GWT method has the capability and can be used for applications where the pipe is insulated, buried, in road crossings, and where access is limited.
5.7 GWT shall be performed by qualified and certified personnel, as specified in the contract or purchase order. Qualifications shall include training specific to the use of the equipment employed, interpretation of the test results, and guided wave technology.
1.1 This practice provides a guide for the use of waves generated using magnetostrictive transduction technology for guided wave testing (GWT) welded tubulars. Magnetostrictive materials transduce or convert time varying magnetic fields into mechanical energy. As a magnetostrictive material is magnetized, it strains. Conversely, if an external force produces a strain in a magnetostrictive material, the material’s magnetic state will change. This bi-directional coupling between the magnetic and mechanical states of a magnetostrictive material provides a transduction capability that can be used for both actuation and sensing devices.
1.2 GWT utilizes ultrasonic guided waves in the 10 to approximately 250 kHz range, sent in the axial direction of the pipe, to non-destructively test pipes for discontinuities or other features by detecting changes in the cross-section or stiffness of the pipe, or both.
1.3 GWT is a screening tool. The method does not provide a direct measurement of wall thickness or the exact dimensions of discontinuities. However, an estimate of the severity of the discontinuity can be obtained.
1.4 This practice is intended for use with tubular carbon steel products having nominal pipe size (NPS) 2 to 48 corresponding to 60.3 to 1219.2 mm (2.375 to 48 in.) outer diameter, and wall thickness between 3.81 and 25.4 mm (0.15 and 1 in.).
1.5 This practice only applies to GWT of basic pipe configuration. This includes pipes that are straight, constructed of a single pipe size and schedules, fully accessible at the test location, jointed by girth welds, supported by simple contact supports and free of internal, or external coatings, or both; the pipe may be insulated or painted.
1.6 This practice provides a general practice for performing the examination. The interpretation of the guided wave data obtained is complex and training is required to properly perform data interpretation.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E543 Specification for Agencies Performing Nondestructive Testing
E1065 Guide for Evaluating Characteristics of Ultrasonic Search Units
E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
E1324 Guide for Measuring Some Electronic Characteristics of Ultrasonic Testing Instruments
E2775 Practice for Guided Wave Testing of Above Ground Steel Pipework Using Piezoelectric Effect Transduction
ICS Number Code 23.040.99 (Other pipeline components)