ASTM E2905 / E2905M - 13

    Standard Practice for Examination of Mill and Kiln Girth Gear Teeth—Electromagnetic Methods

    Active Standard ASTM E2905 / E2905M | Developed by Subcommittee: E07.07

    Book of Standards Volume: 03.03


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 Visual interpretation of gear teeth condition is different from examining for cracks or early signs of macro-pitting. Visual interpretation is referred to ANSI/AGMA 1010 E-95.

    5.1.1 The purpose of using an eddy current array for mill girth gear teeth examination is it drastically reduces the examination time; covers a large area in one single pass; provides real-time cartography of the examined region, facilitating data interpretation; and improves reliability and probability of detection (POD). One tooth can be examined in less than 30 seconds.

    Note 2In this standard, ECA is used as a discontinuity finding tool (see Fig. 3) and a presentation aid as support once problems are discovered and photographed. Colors and three-dimensional (3D) images (see Fig. 4) that help with visualization are invaluable in such circumstances.

    5.1.2 The purpose of using alternating current field measurement is to size surface-breaking cracks electronically.

    5.1.3 This practice is a useful tool for a condition-based monitoring program.

    5.2 The examination results may then be used by qualified personnel or organizations to assess remaining service life or other engineering characteristics (beyond the scope of this practice). This practice is not intended for the examination of non-surface-breaking discontinuities.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice describes a two-part procedure for electromagnetic evaluation on gear teeth on mill and kiln gear drives and pinions. The first part of this practice details the ability to detect 100 % of surface-breaking discontinuities only in the addendum, dedendum, and root area on both the drive side and non-drive side of the gear tooth using an eddy current array. The second part of the examination is to size or measure accurately the length and depth of any cracks found in these areas using electromagnetic methods. No other practice addresses the use of electromagnetic methods for the detection and sizing of surface-breaking discontinuities on mill and kiln ring gear teeth.

    1.2 This practice is used only for crack detection, alignment issues, wear patterns, and early signs of macro-pitting. It will not illustrate a full gear tooth analysis. Visual examination by an experienced gear technician is the only way to analyze fully gear teeth wear patterns and potential failure.

    1.3 Two technicians, or one technician and a technical assistant, are typically required for this practice. One technical assistant guides the probe and the technician operates the computer/software and analyzes the gear teeth condition.

    1.4 It is important that the appropriate method standards, such as Guide E709 and Practice E2261, if the alternating current field measurement approach is used for crack sizing, accompany the technician when performing the examination.

    1.5 It is recommended that the technician reviews the appendixes in this practice in advance of starting the job.

    1.6 A clean gear is recommended for a complete gear analysis. Depending on the lubrication used, the technician, in discussion with the client, shall determine the appropriate cleaning procedure, if cleaning is required. If an oil bath lubrication system is used, ensure the gear teeth surface is clean. If an asphaltic-based or synthetic-based lubricant is used, refer to the annexes and appendices in this practice.

    1.7 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard.

    1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    E709 Guide for Magnetic Particle Testing

    E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations

    E2261 Practice for Examination of Welds Using the Alternating Current Field Measurement Technique

    E2884 Guide for Eddy Current Testing of Electrically Conducting Materials Using Conformable Sensor Arrays

    AIA Standard

    NAS410 Certification and Qualification of Nondestructive Test Personnel

    ANSI/AGMA Standards

    AGMA912-A04 Mechanisms of Gear Tooth Failures--Information Sheet

    ANSI/AGMA1010E-95 Standard for Appearance of Gear Teeth--Terminology of Wear and Failure

    ANSI/AGMA1012G-05 Gear Nomenclature, Definition of Terms

    ANSI/ASNT Standards

    ANSI/ASNT-CP-189 Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 21.200 (Gears)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 31171700(Gears)


    DOI: 10.1520/E2905_E2905M

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