ASTM E2868 - 13

    Standard Digital Reference Images for Steel Castings up to 2 in. (50.8 mm) in Thickness

    Active Standard ASTM E2868 | Developed by Subcommittee: E07.02

    Book of Standards Volume: 03.03


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 Graded reference images are intended to provide a guide enabling recognition of specific casting discontinuity types and relative severity levels that may be encountered during typical fabrication processes. Reference images containing ungraded discontinuities are provided as a guide for recognition of a specific casting discontinuity type where severity levels are not needed. These reference images are intended as a basis from which manufacturers and purchasers may, by mutual agreement, select particular discontinuity classes to serve as standards representing minimum levels of acceptability (see Sections 6 and 7).

    4.2 Reference images represented by this standard may be used, as agreed upon in a purchaser supplier agreement, for energy levels, thicknesses, or both outside the range of this standard when determined applicable for the casting service application.

    4.3 Procedures for evaluation of production images using applicable reference images of this standard are prescribed in Section 8; however, there may be manufacturing-purchaser issues involving specific casting service applications where it may be appropriate to modify or alter such requirements. Where such modifications may be appropriate for the casting application, all such changes shall be specifically called-out in the purchaser supplier agreement or contractual document. Section 9 addresses purchaser supplier requisites for where weld repairs may be required.

    4.4 Agreement should be reached between cognizant engineering organization and the supplier that the system used by the supplier is capable of detecting and classifying the required discontinuities.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These digital reference images illustrate various categories, types, and severity levels of discontinuities occurring in steel castings that have section thicknesses up to 2 in. (50.8 mm). The digital reference images are an adjunct to this standard and must be purchased separately from ASTM International, if needed (see 2.3). Categories and severity levels for each discontinuity type represented by these digital reference images are described in 1.2.

    Note 1The basis of application for these reference images requires a prior purchaser supplier agreement of radiographic examination attributes and acceptance criteria as described in Sections 4, 6, and 7 of this standard.

    1.2 These digital reference images consist of three separate volumes (see Note 2) as follows: (I) medium voltage (nominal 250-kV) X rays, (II) 1-MV X rays and Iridium-192 radiation, and (III) 2-MV to 4-MV X rays and Cobalt-60 radiation. Unless otherwise specified in a purchaser supplier agreement (see 1.1), each volume is for comparison only with production digital images produced with radiation energy levels within the thickness range covered by this standard. Each volume consists of six categories of graded discontinuities of increasing severity level and four categories of ungraded discontinuities. Reference images containing ungraded discontinuities are provided as a guide for recognition of a specific casting discontinuity type where severity levels are not needed. The following is a list of discontinuity categories, types, and severity levels for the adjunct digital reference images of this standard:

    1.2.1 Category A – Gas porosity; severity levels 1 through 5.

    1.2.2 Category B – Sand and slag inclusions; severity levels 1 through 5.

    1.2.3 Category C – Shrinkage; 4 types:

    1.2.3.1 Ca–linear shrinkage– Severity levels 1 through 5.

    1.2.3.2 Cb–feathery shrinkage– Severity levels 1 through 5.

    1.2.3.3 Cc–sponge shrinkage– Severity levels 1 through 5.

    1.2.3.4 Cd–combinations of linear, feathery, and sponge shrinkage – Severity levels 1 through 5.

    1.2.4 Category D–Crack; 1 illustration.

    1.2.5 Category E–Hot Tear; 1 illustration.

    1.2.6 Category F–Insert; 1 illustration.

    1.2.7 Category G–Mottling; 1 illustration. (See Note 3.)

    Note 2The digital reference images consist of the following:

    Volume I: Medium Voltage (nominal 250-kVp) X-Ray Reference Images – Set of 34 illustrations.

    Volume II: 1-MV X Rays and Iridium-192 Reference Images – Set of 34 illustrations.

    Volume III: 2-MV to 4-MV X Rays and Cobalt-60 Reference Images – Set of 34 illustrations.
    Note 3Although Category G – Mottling is listed for all three volumes, the appearance of mottling is dependent on the level of radiation energy. Mottling appears reasonably prominent in Volume I; however, because of the higher radiation energy levels mottling may not be apparent in Volume II nor Volume III.

    1.3 All areas of this standard may be open to agreement between the cognizant engineering organization and the supplier, or specific direction from the cognizant engineering organization. These items should be addressed in the purchase order or the contract.

    1.4 These digital reference images are not intended to illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities found in steel castings up to 2 in. (50.8 mm) in thickness when performing film radiography. If performing film radiography of steel castings up to 2 in. (50.8 mm) in thickness, refer to Reference Radiographs E446.

    1.5 Only licensed copies of the software and images shall be utilized for production inspection. A copy of the ASTM/User license agreement shall be kept on file for audit purposes. (See Note 4.)

    Note 4Each volume of digital reference images consists of 7 digital data files, software to load the desired format and specific instructions on the loading process. The 34 reference images in each volume illustrate six categories of graded discontinuities and four categories of ungraded discontinuities and contain an image of a step wedge. Available from ASTM International Headquarters, Order No: RRE2868.

    1.6 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

    1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    E446 Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings Up to 2 in. (50.8 mm) in Thickness

    E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations

    E2446 Practice for Classification of Computed Radiology Systems

    E2597 Practice for Manufacturing Characterization of Digital Detector Arrays

    SMPTE Practice

    RP133SMPTE Recommended Practice Specifications for Medical Diagnostic Imaging Test Pattern for Television Monitors and Hard-Copy Recording Cameras

    ASTM Adjunct

    RRE2868 Digital Reference Images for Inspection of Steel Castings Up to 2 in. (50.8 mm) in Thickness


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 77.040.20 (Non-destructive testing of metals); 77.140.80 (Iron and steel castings)

    DOI: 10.1520/E2868

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