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Significance and Use
3.1 This terminology standard contains definitions of appearance terms applicable to the work of many ASTM technical committees. Its use by committees other than Committee E12 on Color and Appearance, and its citation in the standards of such committees, is encouraged.
3.2 In this terminology standard, definitions of terms used in other ASTM standards are indicated by placing the designation of that standard in parentheses at the end of the definition. Definitions used by other organizations (see Refs (3–4)) are indicated similarly by placing in parentheses at the end of the definition the acronym of the organization, occasionally with the date of its terminology standard quoted. In either case, a superscript letter may be used to indicate the degree of correspondence between the definition given herein and that in the citation. Superscript A indicates that the two are identical; B that the given definition is a modification of that cited, with little difference in essential meaning; and C that the two differ substantially.
3.3 A further parenthetical inclusion at the end of the definition gives the revision, if after 1981, in which the definition was added to this terminology standard or last revised.
3.4 Where appropriate, symbols or acronyms are listed for terms in this terminology standard. Since usage varies, these listings should be considered as recommendations, not as mandatory. If a different symbol or acronym is used in another ASTM standard, this should be indicated in that standard.
3.5 In the 1990 edition of this terminology standard, a great many terms were relocated to conform to the recommendation of the Form and Style for ASTM Standards, (Blue Book) that listings be in spoken word order. In general, there are no cross-references between the old and new listings, except where a special function is served. An example of such a special function is to list all terms relating to a given basic quantity, for example, all terms defining various sorts of angles.
3.6 This terminology standard adopts the following usage of certain word endings. The ending “ion” denotes a process, as in reflection; “ance” denotes a property of a specimen, as in reflectance; and “ity” denotes a property of the kind of material of which the specimen is composed, as in reflectivity. Exceptions exist, as in the common use of illumination and radiation to refer to quantities as well as processes.
1.1 This terminology standard defines terms used in the description of appearance, including but not limited to color, gloss, opacity, scattering, texture, and visibility of both materials (ordinary, fluorescent, retroreflective) and light sources (including visual display units).
1.2 It is the policy of ASTM Committee E12 on Color and Appearance that this terminology standard include important terms and definitions explicit to the scope, whether or not the terms are currently used in an ASTM standard. Terms that are in common use and appear in common-language dictionaries (see Refs (1–2)2) are generally not included, except when the dictionaries show multiple definitions and it seems desirable to indicate the definitions recommended for E12 standards.
1.3 The usage of terms describing appearance varies considerably. In some cases, different usage of a term in different fields has been noted.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C242 Terminology of Ceramic Whitewares and Related Products
C286 Terminology Relating to Porcelain Enamel and Ceramic-Metal Systems
C460 Terminology for Asbestos-Cement
D16 Terminology for Paint, Related Coatings, Materials, and Applications
D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles
D156 Test Method for Saybolt Color of Petroleum Products (Saybolt Chromometer Method)
D883 Terminology Relating to Plastics
D1003 Test Method for Haze and Luminous Transmittance of Transparent Plastics
D1129 Terminology Relating to Water
D1245 Practice for Examination of Water-Formed Deposits by Chemical Microscopy
D1535 Practice for Specifying Color by the Munsell System
D1695 Terminology of Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives
D1889 Test Method for Turbidity of Water
D2805 Test Method for Hiding Power of Paints by Reflectometry
E131 Terminology Relating to Molecular Spectroscopy
E135 Terminology Relating to Analytical Chemistry for Metals, Ores, and Related Materials
E179 Guide for Selection of Geometric Conditions for Measurement of Reflection and Transmission Properties of Materials
E313 Practice for Calculating Yellowness and Whiteness Indices from Instrumentally Measured Color Coordinates
E349 Terminology Relating to Space Simulation
E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics
E491 Practice for Solar Simulation for Thermal Balance Testing of Spacecraft
E808 Practice for Describing Retroreflection
E809 Practice for Measuring Photometric Characteristics of Retroreflectors
E903 Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance, and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres
E1164 Practice for Obtaining Spectrometric Data for Object-Color Evaluation
E1767 Practice for Specifying the Geometries of Observation and Measurement to Characterize the Appearance of Materials
E2175 Practice for Specifying the Geometry of Multiangle Spectrophotometers
E2214 Practice for Specifying and Verifying the Performance of Color-Measuring Instruments
F923 Guide to Properties of High Visibility Materials Used to Improve Individual Safety
ICS Number Code 17.040.20 (Properties of surfaces)