Active Standard ASTM E280 | Developed by Subcommittee: E07.02
Book of Standards Volume: 03.03
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
Graded reference radiographs are intended to provide a guide enabling recognition of specific casting discontinuity types and relative severity levels that may be encountered during typical fabrication processes. Reference radiographs containing ungraded discontinuities are provided as a guide for recognition of a specific casting discontinuity type where severity levels may not be needed. These reference radiographs are intended as a basis from which manufacturers and purchasers may, by mutual agreement, select particular workmanship classes to serve as standards representing minimum levels of acceptability (see Sections 6 and 7).
Reference radiographs represented by this standard may be used, as agreed upon in a purchaser supplier agreement, for energy levels, thicknesses or both outside the range of this standard when determined applicable for the casting service application. Overlapping severity levels of similar discontinuity categories and energy level range of E186 reference radiographs may alternatively be used, as determined appropriate for the casting service application, if so agreed upon in a purchaser supplier agreement (see 5.1).
Procedures for evaluation of production radiographs using applicable reference radiographs of this standard are prescribed in Section 8; however, there may be manufacturing-purchaser issues involving specific casting service applications where it may be appropriate to modify or alter such requirements. Where such modifications may be appropriate for the casting application, all such changes shall be specifically called-out in the purchaser supplier agreement or contractual document. Section 9 addresses purchaser supplier requisites where weld repairs may be required.
1.1 These reference radiographs illustrate various categories, types, and severity levels of discontinuities occurring in steel castings that have section thicknesses of 4 ½ to 12 in. (114 to 305 mm). The reference radiograph films are an adjunct to this document and must be purchased separately from ASTM International, if needed (see 2.2). Categories and severity levels for each discontinuity type represented by these reference radiographs are described in 1.2.
Note 1—The basis of application for these reference radiographs requires a prior purchaser supplier agreement of radiographic examination attributes and classification criterion as described in Sections 4, 6, and 7 of this standard. Reference radiographs for other steel casting thicknesses may be found in Reference Radiograph standards E446 and E186. Reference radiograph E186 provides some overlap of severity levels for similar discontinuity categories within the same energy level range (see 4.2, 5.1, and 6.3).
1.2 These reference radiographs consist of two separate volumes as follows
1.2.1 Volume I: 2-MV X-rays and Cobalt-60—This includes cobalt-60 or equivalent isotope radiation and from 2-MV up to 4-MV X-rays. Set of 28 plates in 8½ by 11 in. (216 by 279 mm) ring binders.
1.2.2 Volume II: 4-MV to 30-MV X-rays—Set of 28 plates in 8 1/2 by 11 in. (216 by 279 mm) ring binders.
1.2.3 Unless otherwise specified in a purchaser supplier agreement (see 1.1), each volume is for comparison only with production radiographs produced with radiation energy levels within the thickness range covered by this standard. Each volume consists of three categories of graded discontinuities in increasing severity levels, and three categories of ungraded discontinuities. Reference radiographs containing ungraded discontinuities are provided as a guide for recognition of a specific casting discontinuity type where severity levels are not needed. Following is a list of discontinuity categories, types and severity levels for the adjunct reference radiographs of this standard:
184.108.40.206 Category A—Gas porosity; severity levels 1 through 5.
220.127.116.11 Category B—Sand and slag inclusions; severity levels 1 through 5.
18.104.22.168 Category C—Shrinkage; three types:
(1) Ca Linear Shrinkage—Severity levels 1 through 5 (called Type 1 in previous revisions).
(2) Cb Feathery Shrinkage—Severity levels 1 through 5 (called Type 2 in previous revisions).
(3) Cc Sponge Shrinkage—Severity levels 1 through 5 (called Type 3 in previous revisions).
22.214.171.124 Category D—Crack; one illustration D5 in pre-1972 documents.
126.96.36.199 Category E—Hot tear; one illustration D3 in pre-1972 documents.
188.8.131.52 Category F—Insert; one illustration EB2 in pre-1972 documents.
1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. SI values are shown for information only.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E94 Guide for Radiographic Examination
E186 Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (2 to 412-in. (50.8 to 114-mm)) Steel Castings
E242 Reference Radiographs for Appearances of Radiographic Images as Certain Parameters are Changed
E446 Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings Up to 2 in. (50.8 mm) in Thickness
E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations