ASTM E28 - 14

    Standard Test Methods for Softening Point of Resins Derived from Pine Chemicals and Hydrocarbons, by Ring-and-Ball Apparatus

    Active Standard ASTM E28 | Developed by Subcommittee: D01.34

    Book of Standards Volume: 06.03


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    Significance and Use

    3.1 In general, with materials of these types, softening does not take place at a definite temperature. As the temperature rises, these materials gradually change from brittle or exceedingly thick and slow-flowing materials to softer and less viscous liquids. For this reason, the determination of the softening point must be made by a fixed, arbitrary, and closely defined method if the results obtained are to be comparable.

    3.2 In these test methods, the softening point is defined as the temperature at which a disk of the sample held within a horizontal ring is forced downward a distance of 25.4 mm (1 in.) under the weight of a steel ball as the sample is heated at 5°C/min in a water, glycerin, silicone oil, ethylene glycol/water or glycerin/water bath.

    3.3 The automatic method was chosen to be the reference method because a round robin demonstrated that it gave more precise results than the manual method.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods are intended for determining the softening point of resins (including rosin and terpene resins) and similar materials by means of the ring-and-ball apparatus.

    Note 1: For testing asphalts, tars, and pitches, see Test Method D36.

    1.1.1 Test method using the automated ring and ball softening point apparatus is the reference method and

    1.1.2 Test method using the manual ring and ball softening point apparatus is an alternative method.

    1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

    1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D36 Test Method for Softening Point of Bitumen (Ring-and-Ball Apparatus)

    E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers

    E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 87.040 (Paints and varnishes)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 13111000(Resins); 13111100(Rosins)


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/E0028-14

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM E28-14, Standard Test Methods for Softening Point of Resins Derived from Pine Chemicals and Hydrocarbons, by Ring-and-Ball Apparatus, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014, www.astm.org

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