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Significance and Use
4.1 Many types of measurements are made routinely in research organizations, business and industry, and government and academic agencies. Typically, data are generated from experimental effort or as observational studies. From such data, management decisions are made that may have wide-reaching social, economic, and political impact. Data and decision making go hand in hand and that is why the quality of any measurement is important—for data originate from a measurement process. This guide presents selected concepts and methods useful for describing and understanding the measurement process. This guide is not intended to be a comprehensive survey of this topic.
4.2 Any measurement result will be said to originate from a measurement process or system. The measurement process will consist of a number of input variables and general conditions that affect the final value of the measurement. The process variables, hardware and software and their properties, and the human effort required to obtain a measurement constitute the measurement process. A measurement process will have several properties that characterize the effect of the several variables and general conditions on the measurement results. It is the properties of the measurement process that are of primary interest in any such study. The term “measurement systems analysis” or MSA study is used to describe the several methods used to characterize the measurement process.
1.1 This guide presents terminology, concepts, and selected methods and formulas useful for measurement systems analysis (MSA). Measurement systems analysis may be broadly described as a body of theory and methodology that applies to the non-destructive measurement of the physical properties of manufactured objects.
1.2 Units—The system of units for this guide is not specified. Dimensional quantities in the guide are presented only as illustrations of calculation methods and are not binding on products or test methods treated.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics
E2586 Practice for Calculating and Using Basic Statistics
E2587 Practice for Use of Control Charts in Statistical Process Control
ICS Number Code 17.020 (Metrology and measurement in general)