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Significance and Use
The procedures outlined here are grounded in the generally accepted body of knowledge and experience in the field of forensic document examination, forensic photography, and forensic digital imaging. By following these procedures a forensic document examiner can use image capture technology reliably in support of examinations. This support can include:
Documentation of the item(s) submitted for examination, its condition upon receipt, and its condition at various points during the examination process;
Demonstration of findings and the bases for determinations;
Visualization of features and characteristics not readily perceptible to the human eye.
The effects of prior storage, handling, testing, or chemical processing (for example, for latent prints) can interfere with certain characteristics to an extent that can limit (or even preclude) subsequent imaging. Whenever possible, capture images of the item to be examined prior to any chemical processing. Handle items appropriately to avoid compromising subsequent examinations of any kind.
The technological evolution of hardware, or software, or both can impact subsequent ability to access archived images.
Note 1—For further discussion see SWGIT, Section 1.
1.1 This practice provides procedures to be used by forensic document examiners (Guide E444) using image capture and storage technology.
1.2 These procedures are applicable whether the use of the image capture technology involves an item(s) associated with a matter under investigation (questioned or known items), or is for reference.
1.3 These procedures include evaluation of the sufficiency of the available imaging capture and storage technologies.
1.4 Procedures are also outlined for image archiving.
1.5 The particular methods employed in a given case depend upon the nature of the item, or the question at hand, or both.
1.6 This practice might not cover all aspects of the use of image capture and storage technology involving unusual or uncommon items.
1.7 This practice cannot replace the requisite knowledge, skills, or abilities acquired through appropriate education, training (Guide E2388), and experience and should be used in conjunction with sound professional judgment.
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E312 Practice for Description and Selection of Conditions for Photographing Specimens Using Analog (Film) Cameras and Digital Still Cameras (DSC)
E444 Guide for Scope of Work of Forensic Document Examiners
E1422 Guide for Test Methods for Forensic Writing Ink Comparison
E1732 Terminology Relating to Forensic Science
E2195 Terminology Relating to the Examination of Questioned Documents
E2388 Guide for Minimum Training Requirements for Forensic Document Examiners
ICS Number Code 03.160 (Law. Administration); 11.020 (Medical sciences and health care facilities in general)