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Significance and Use
Reference radiographs for high-strength copper-base and nickel-copper alloy castings are intended to be used as a guide to the recognition of common discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and severity level. Discontinuity types most common to these alloys are illustrated. Other discontinuity types such as hot tears, cracks and unfused chaplets are illustrated in applicable Reference Radiographs E186, E192, and E446. For reference, descriptions of typical casting defects and corresponding radiographic indication types are contained in Section 5. Purchasers and suppliers may, by mutual agreement, select particular discontinuity classes (see 1.2) to serve as standards representing minimum levels of acceptability. (See Sections 7 and 8.)
Reference radiographs represented by this standard may be used, as agreed upon in a purchaser supplier agreement, for energy levels, thicknesses or both outside the range of this standard when determined applicable for the casting service application.
Procedures for evaluation of production radiographs using applicable reference radiographs of this standard are prescribed in Section 9; however, there may be manufacturing-purchaser issues involving specific casting service applications where it may be appropriate to modify or alter such requirements. Where such modifications may be appropriate for the casting application, all such changes shall be called-out in the purchaser supplier agreement or contractual document. Section 10 addresses purchaser supplier requisites where weld repairs may be required.
The following ASTM specifications illustrate alloys that may be used with these standards. It is intended that these reference radiographs also apply to related government and commercial material specifications.
1.1 These reference radiographs illustrate various categories, types, and severity levels of discontinuities occurring in high-strength copper-base, nickel-copper, and related alloy castings. The reference radiograph films are an adjunct to this document and must be purchased separately from ASTM International, if needed (see 2.3). Categories and severity levels for each discontinuity type represented by these reference radiographs are described in 1.2.
Note 1—The basis of application for these reference radiographs requires a prior purchaser supplier agreement of radiographic examination attributes and classification criterion described in Sections 4, 7, 8, 9, and 10 of this standard.
1.2 These reference radiographs consist of forty-five 5 by 7-in. (127 by 178-mm) nominal size reproductions (twenty made from 1-in. (25.4-mm) plate castings exposed with low voltage X-rays for thicknesses up to and including 2 in.) and twenty-five made from 3-in. (76-mm) plate castings exposed with 2 MV X-rays or Cobalt 60 isotope for thicknesses greater than 2 in. up to and including 6 in. Unless otherwise specified in a purchaser supplier agreement (see 1.1), each discontinuity category is for comparison only with production radiographs produced with radiation energy levels within the thickness range covered by the category. These reference radiographs illustrate discontinuities in sand-cast manganese-nickel-aluminum bronze-alloy plates and are representative of those found in narrow freezing range (formerly “high shrinkage”), high-strength copper and nickel-copper alloys. Following is a list of discontinuity categories, types and severity levels for the adjunct reference radiographs of this standard (see Note 2):
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
B148 Specification for Aluminum-Bronze Sand Castings
B369 Specification for Copper-Nickel Alloy Castings
B584 Specification for Copper Alloy Sand Castings for General Applications
E94 Guide for Radiographic Examination
E186 Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (2 to 412-in. (50.8 to 114-mm)) Steel Castings
E192 Reference Radiographs of Investment Steel Castings for Aerospace Applications
E242 Reference Radiographs for Appearances of Radiographic Images as Certain Parameters are Changed
E446 Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings Up to 2 in. (50.8 mm) in Thickness
E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
Military SpecificationMIL-B-21230A Bronze, Nickel Aluminum and Manganese-Nickel Aluminum, Casting, Ship Propeller Application Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, DODSSP, Bldg. 4, Section D, 700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5098
ICS Number Code 77.040.20 (Non-destructive testing of metals); 77.150.30 (Copper products); 77.150.40 (Nickel and chromium products)