Significance and Use
These digital reference images are intended for reference only, but are designed such that acceptance standards, which may be developed for particular requirements, can be specified in terms of these digital reference images. The illustrations are digital images of castings that were produced under conditions designed to develop the discontinuities.
Applicability of Thickness Designations:
Clustered holes, scattered gas holes, scattered shrinkage cavity, centerline shrinkage
(1) The images of the ¼-in. (6.4-mm) castings are intended to be used in the thickness range up to and including 3/8-in. (9.5-mm). The images of the ½ -in. (12.7-mm) castings are intended to be used in the thickness range of over 3/8-in. (9.5-mm), up to and including 5/8-in. (15.9-mm). The images of the ¾-in. (19.1-mm) castings are intended to be used in the thickness range of over 5/8-in. (15.9-mm), up to and including 1-in. (25.4-mm).
(1) The images of the ½-in. (12.7-mm) castings are intended to be used in the thickness range up to and including 5/8-in. (15.9-mm). The images of the ¾ -in. (19.1-mm) castings are intended to be used in the thickness range over 5/8-in. (15.9-mm) to 1-in. (25.4-mm).
Gas hole; foreign material, less dense; foreign material, more dense
(1) The images are intended to be used in the thickness range up to and including 1-in. (25.4-mm).
Image Deterioration—Many conditions can affect the appearance and functionality of digital reference images. For example, electrical interference, hardware incompatibilities, and corrupted files and drivers may affect their appearance. The Practice E2002 line pair gauges located in each digital reference image can be used as an aid to detect image deterioration by comparing the measured resolution using the gauges to the resolution stated on the digital reference image. Do not use the digital reference images if their appearance has been adversely affected such that the interpretation and use of the images could be influenced.
Agreement should be reached between cognizant engineering organization and the supplier that the system used by the supplier is capable of detecting and classifying the required discontinuities.
1.1 The digital reference images provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in titanium castings. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct digital reference images, which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following:
1.1.1 A guide enabling recognition of titanium casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through digital radiographic examination.
1.1.2 Example digital radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications and drawings.
1.2 The digital reference images consist of seventeen digital files each illustrating eight grades of increasing severity. The files illustrate seven common discontinuity types representing casting sections up to 1-in. (25.4-mm).
1.3 The reference radiographs were developed for casting sections up to 1 in. (25.4 mm) in thickness.
1.4 All areas of this standard may be open to agreement between the cognizant engineering organization and the supplier, or specific direction from the cognizant engineering organization. These items should be addressed in the purchase order or the contract.
Note 1—Each of the digital reference images contain an image of a step wedge and two duplex-wire gauges. Refer to Practice E2002 for wire pair details.
1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.6 These digital reference images are not intended to illustrate the types or degrees of discontinuities when performing film radiography. If performing film radiography of titanium castings, refer to Reference Radiographs E1320.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.8 Only licensed copies of the software and images shall be utilized for production inspection. A copy of the ASTM/User license agreement shall be kept on file for audit purposes.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E94 Guide for Radiographic Examination
E1025 Practice for Design, Manufacture, and Material Grouping Classification of Hole-Type Image Quality Indicators (IQI) Used for Radiology
E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
E1320 Reference Radiographs for Titanium Castings
E2002 Practice for Determining Total Image Unsharpness in Radiology
E2597 Practice for Manufacturing Characterization of Digital Detector Arrays
aerospace; digital reference image; discontinuities; investment castings; titanium; X-ray;
ICS Number Code 35.140 (Computer graphics); 49.035 (Components for aerospace construction)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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