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Significance and Use
Test methods for chemical analysis of reactive and refractory metals are primarily intended to test such materials for compliance with compositional specifications. It is assumed that all who use this guide will be trained analysts capable of performing common laboratory procedures skillfully and safely. It is expected that work will be performed in a properly equipped laboratory under appropriate quality control practices such as those described in Guide E882 and Practice E2437, as well as in ISO 17025 and ISO Guide 32.
This guide is intended to aid analytical chemistry laboratories in the analysis of reactive and refractory metals and their alloys when no specific standard test methods are available. The principles incorporated in this practice can also be applied in laboratories that wish to validate and document non-standard test methods.
The analysis of reactive and refractory materials is typically performed by only a small number of laboratories. Few of these laboratories have analytical instrumentation in common for use in interlaboratory proficiency testing programs. This requires the use of within-laboratory developed test methods that vary between laboratories. It is intended that this practice will give general guidance to experienced personnel that will assist them in the development of a procedure that will meet their analytical objectives.
Practice E2438 provides guidance for the development and documentation of an In-House Standard Operating Procedure (SOP).
1.1 This guide covers a variety of analytical techniques that have proven to be acceptable for the analysis of the reactive and refractory metals titanium, zirconium, niobium, hafnium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, and vanadium.
1.2 The principles and techniques in this guide can be used by ISO 17025 compliant laboratories that need to implement other performance-based test methods or need to document and validate extensions of standard test methods, or non-standard test methods.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
E50 Practices for Apparatus, Reagents, and Safety Considerations for Chemical Analysis of Metals, Ores, and Related Materials
E135 Terminology Relating to Analytical Chemistry for Metals, Ores, and Related Materials
E539 Test Method for Analysis of Titanium Alloys by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
E882 Guide for Accountability and Quality Control in the Chemical Analysis Laboratory
E1097 Guide for Determination of Various Elements by Direct Current Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry
E1184 Practice for Determination of Elements by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
E1479 Practice for Describing and Specifying Inductively-Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometers
E1552 Test Method for Determining Hafnium in Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys By Direct Current Plasma--Atomic Emission Spectrometry
E1601 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Evaluate the Performance of an Analytical Method
E1621 Guide for X-Ray Emission Spectrometric Analysis
E1770 Practice for Optimization of Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Equipment
E2371 Test Method for Analysis of Titanium and Titanium Alloys by Atomic Emission Plasma Spectrometry
E2437 Practice for Designing and Validating Performance-Based Test Methods for the Analysis of Metals, Ores, and Related Materials
E2438 Practice for Implementing Standard Performance Based Test Methods for the Analysis of Metals, Ores, and Related Materials
ISO StandardsISOGuide32 Calibration in Analytical Chemistry and Use of Certified Reference Materials
ICS Number Code 77.040.30 (Chemical analysis of metals)
UNSPSC Code 41115403(Spectrometers)