Significance and Use
The measurement of particulate matter emission rates is an important test method widely used in the practice of air pollution control.
These measurements, when approved by federal or state agencies, are often required for the purpose of determining compliance with regulations and statutes.
The measurements made before and after design modifications are necessary to demonstrate the effectiveness of design changes in reducing emissions and make this standard an important tool in manufacturer’s research and development programs.
Measurement of heating efficiency provides a uniform basis for comparison of product performance that is useful to the consumer. It is also required to relate emissions produced to the useful heat production.
This is a laboratory method and is not intended to be fully representative of all actual field use. It is recognized that users of hand-fired wood burning equipment have a great deal of influence over the performance of any wood-burning appliance. Some compromises in realism have been made in the interest of providing a reliable and repeatable test method.
1.1 This test method applies to wood-fired or automatically fed biomass burning hydronic heating appliances, which the manufacturer specifies for outdoor installation or in structures not normally occupied by humans. These appliances transfer heat to the indoor environment through circulation of a liquid heat exchange media such as water or a water-antifreeze mixture.
1.2 The test method simulates hand loading of seasoned cordwood or fueling with a specified biomass fuel and measures particulate emissions and delivered heating efficiency at specified heat output rates based on the appliance’s rated heating capacity.
1.3 Particulate emissions are measured by the dilution tunnel method as specified in Test Method E 2515. Delivered efficiency is measured by determining the heat output through measurement of the flow rate and temperature change of water circulated through a heat exchanger external to the appliance and determining the input from the mass of dry fuel and its higher heating value. Delivered efficiency does not attempt to account for pipeline loss.
1.4 Products covered by this test method include both pressurized and non-pressurized heating appliances intended to be fired with wood or automatically fed biomass fuels. These products are hydronic heating appliances which the manufacturer specifies for outdoor installation or in structures not normally occupied by humans. They are often connected to an indoor heat exchanger by insulated pipes buried in the ground and normally include a pump to circulate heated liquid. They are used to heat structures such as homes, barns, and greenhouses and can heat domestic hot water, spas, or swimming pools.
1.5 Distinguishing features of products covered by this standard include:
1.5.1 Manufacturers specify outdoor installation or installation in structures not normally occupied by humans.
1.5.2 A firebox with an access door for hand loading of fuel or a hopper and automated feed system for delivery of particulate fuel such as wood pellets or solid biomass fuel to a burn pot or combustion chamber.
1.5.3 Typically a thermostatic control device that controls combustion air supply or fuel delivery, or both, to maintain the liquid in the appliance within a predetermined temperature range provided sufficient fuel is available in the firebox or hopper.
1.5.4 A chimney or vent that exhausts combustion products from the appliance.
1.6 The values stated are to be regarded as the standard whether in inch-pound or SI units. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D4442 Test Methods for Direct Moisture Content Measurement of Wood and Wood-Base Materials
E631 Terminology of Building Constructions
E711 Test Method for Gross Calorific Value of Refuse-Derived Fuel by the Bomb Calorimeter
E2515 Test Method for Determination of Particulate Matter Emissions Collected by a Dilution Tunnel
hydronic heating appliances; outdoor hydronic heaters; solid fuel; wood-burning; Hydronic heating systems; Heating tests--building products; Performance--building materials/applications;
ICS Number Code 91.140.10 (Central heating systems)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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