Significance and Use
This test method covers the determination of surface deflections as a result of the application of an impulse load. The resulting deflections are measured at the center of the applied load and may also be measured at various distances away from the load. Deflections may be either correlated directly to pavement performance or used to determine in-situ material characteristics of the pavement layers. Some uses of data include quality control and quality assurance of compacted layers, structural evaluation of load carrying capacity, and determination of thickness requirements for highway and airfield pavements (see Guide D4695).
Note 1—Since pavement and subgrade materials may be stress dependent, care must be taken when analyzing LWD test data on unbound materials so that the applied stress will closely match the stress value applied by the design wheel load at the pavement surface.
Note 2—The volume of the pavement and subgrade materials affected by the load is a function of the magnitude of the load. Therefore, care must be taken when analyzing the results, since the data obtained by the LWD may be obtained from a smaller volume of the unbound materials than under the influence of a heavy moving wheel load at the pavement surface.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of deflections of paved and unpaved surfaces with a Light Weight Deflectometer (LWD). This device is also referred to as a Portable Falling-Weight Deflectometer (PFWD). The LWD is lightweight, portable and generally used for testing unbound pavement layers. The deflections measured using an LWD can be used to determine the stiffness of bound and unbound pavement surfaces using appropriate back- or forwardcalculation analysis techniques.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D2487 Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
D4695 Guide for General Pavement Deflection Measurements
FHWA-HRT-06-132 Version 4.1 Long-Term Pavement Performance Program Manual for Falling Weight Deflectometer Measurements
deflection surveys; deflection testing; Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD); Light Weight Deflectometer (LWD); impulse deflection testing; load-deflection testing; Nondestructive testing (NDT); pavement deflection; pavement testing; pavement layer modulus; pavement layer stiffness; Portable Falling-Weight Deflectometer (PFWD): Light Weight Deflectometer (LWD); Portable Falling-Weight Deflectometer (PFWD); Deflection--pavement surfaces/applications;
ICS Number Code 93.080.10 (Road construction)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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