Significance and Use
The purpose of this guide is to provide a logical, tiered approach in the development of environmental health criteria coincident with level and effort in the research, development, testing, and evaluation of new energetic materials. Various levels of uncertainty are associated with data collected from previous stages. Following the recommendation in the guide should reduce the relative uncertainty of the data collected at each developmental stage. At each stage, a general weight of evidence qualifier shall accompany each exposure/effect relationship. They may be simple (for example, low, medium, or high confidence) or sophisticated using a numerical value for each predictor as a multiplier to ascertain relative confidence in each step of risk characterization. The specific method used will depend on the stage of development, quantity and availability of data, variation in the measurement, and general knowledge of the dataset. Since specific formulations, conditions, and use scenarios are often not known until the later stages, exposure estimates can be determined only at advanced stages (for example, Engineering and Manufacturing Development; see 6.6). Exposure data can then be used with other toxicological data collected from previous stages in a quantitative risk assessment to determine the relative degree of hazard.
Data developed from the use of this guide are designed to be consistent with criteria required in weapons and weapons system development (for example, programmatic environment, safety and occupational health evaluations, environmental assessments/environmental impact statements, toxicity clearances, and technical data sheets).
Information shall be evaluated in a flexible manner consistent with the needs of the authorizing program. This requires proper characterization of the current problem. For example, compounds may be ranked relative to the environmental criteria of the prospective alternatives, the replacement compound, and within bounds of absolute environmental values. A weight of evidence (evaluation of uncertainty and variability) must also be considered with each criterion at each stage to allow for a proper assessment of the potential for adverse environmental or occupational effects; see 6.8.
This standard approach requires environment, safety, and occupational health (ESOH) technical experts to determine the risk and energetic materials researchers to evaluate the acceptability of the risk. Generally, the higher developmental stages require a higher managerial level of approval.
1.1 This guide is intended to determine the relative environmental influence of new munition constituents, consistent with the research and development (R&D) level of effort and is intended to be applied in a logical, tiered manner that parallels both the available funding and the stage of research, development, testing, and evaluation. Specifically, conservative assumptions, relationships, and models are recommended early in the research stage, and as the munition technology is matured, empirical data will be developed and used. Munition constituents may include fuels, oxidizers, explosives, binders, stabilizers, metals, dyes, and other compounds used in the formulation to produce a desired effect. Munition systems range from projectiles, grenades, rockets/missiles, training simulators, smokes and obscurants. Given the complexity of issues involved in the assessment of environmental fate and effects and the diversity of the munition systems used, this guide is broad in scope and not intended to address every factor that may be important in an environmental context. Rather, it is intended to reduce uncertainty at minimal cost by considering the most important factors related to the environmental impacts of energetic materials. This guide provides a method for collecting data useful in a relative ranking procedure to provide the munition scientist with a sound basis for prospectively determining a selection of candidates based on environmental and human health criteria.
1.2 The scope of this guide includes:
1.2.1 Energetic materials and compositions in all stages of research, development, test and evaluation.
1.2.2 Environmental assessment, including:
184.108.40.206 Human and ecological effects of the unexploded energetics and compositions on the environment.
220.127.116.11 Environmental transport mechanisms of the unexploded energetics and composition.
18.104.22.168 Degradation and bioaccumulation properties.
1.2.3 Occupational health impacts from manufacture and use of the energetic substances and compositions to include load, assembly, and packing of the related munitions.
1.3 Given the wide array of applications, the methods in this guide are not prescriptive. They are intended to provide flexible, general methods that can be used to evaluate factors important in determining environmental consequences from use of the energetic substances.
1.4 Factors that affect the health of humans as well as the environment are considered early in the development process. Since some of these data are valuable in determining health effects from generalized exposure, effects from occupational exposures are also included.
1.5 This guide does not address all processes and factors important to the fate, transport, and potential for effects in every system. It is intended to be balanced effort between scientific and practical means to evaluate the relative environmental effects of munition compounds resulting from intended use. It is the responsibility of the user to assess data quality as well as sufficiently characterize the scope and magnitude of uncertainty associated with any application of this standard.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D5660 Test Method for Assessing the Microbial Detoxification of Chemically Contaminated Water and Soil Using a Toxicity Test with a Luminescent Marine Bacterium
E729 Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
E857 Practice for Conducting Subacute Dietary Toxicity Tests with Avian Species
E943 Terminology Relating to Biological Effects and Environmental Fate
E1023 Guide for Assessing the Hazard of a Material to Aquatic Organisms and Their Uses
E1147 Test Method for Partition Coefficient (N-Octanol/Water) Estimation by Liquid Chromatography
E1148 Test Method for Measurements of Aqueous Solubility
E1163 Test Method for Estimating Acute Oral Toxicity in Rats
E1193 Guide for Conducting Daphnia magna Life-Cycle Toxicity Tests
E1194 Test Method for Vapor Pressure
E1195 Test Method for Determining a Sorption Constant (Koc) for an Organic Chemical in Soil and Sediments
E1241 Guide for Conducting Early Life-Stage Toxicity Tests with Fishes
E1279 Test Method for Biodegradation By a Shake-Flask Die-Away Method
E1372 Test Method for Conducting a 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rats
E1415 Guide for Conducting Static Toxicity Tests With Lemna gibba G3
E1525 Guide for Designing Biological Tests with Sediments
E1624 Guide for Chemical Fate in Site-Specific Sediment/Water Microcosms
E1676 Guide for Conducting Laboratory Soil Toxicity or Bioaccumulation Tests with the Lumbricid Earthworm Eisenia Fetida and the Enchytraeid Potworm Enchytraeus albidus
E1689 Guide for Developing Conceptual Site Models for Contaminated Sites
E1706 Test Method for Measuring the Toxicity of Sediment-Associated Contaminants with Freshwater Invertebrates
effects; energetics; environment; fate; health; life cycle;
ICS Number Code 95.020 (Military engineering. Military affairs. Weapons)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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