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Significance and Use
The application of elements (see 3.2.1 and Terminology E 833
This practice describes a simple format for elemental cost analysis presentation that is both valuable and informative when used during the various design stages of construction development.
Use—Users include owners, developers, contractors, cost professionals, estimators, architects, engineers, quantity surveyors, facility managers, and others involved in property development, construction, maintenance, and management.
Reporting—Cost reports structured by elements provide estimates, summaries, and analyses by applying “Cost to Function.” This application works whether the approach is “Design to Cost” or “Cost to Design.” Value analysis is greatly assisted through the allocation of estimated cost to elements.
Controlling—Comparison of progressively more detailed estimates is simplified where cost is allocated to appropriate elements regardless of design or specification, permitting efficient review and checking of new estimates. Design estimating using elements allows for benchmarking and the setting of cost limits (baseline) for a building design from the outset, and also permits the establishment of an elemental cost plan (see 3.2.2). Baseline records and cost plans are accessed and compared with current reports.
Recording—Historic and baseline cost records are easily kept for all forms of building construction, and in a format that can be used for the planning and design of future projects.
Other Uses—Elemental summaries and analyses are equally useful in forensic estimating and in quantitative risk analysis.
Relationship to “Trade” Estimating—Traditional trade (or construction) estimating summarizes cost to a product, or trade classification. This is valuable when construction work has been fully specified or contracted, but is less so through the planning and design stages. The two systems (trade and elemental) are compatible in that they both relate to the same end product, for example, a building; they differ solely in the way cost is aggregated. Each estimate form can be converted to the other by coding or allocating each construction component to an appropriate trade/product division or element. During design evolution, changes in design and specification can make trade estimates difficult to compare with previous or other, or both, estimates and so can hinder the process of cost control during the design phase.
Additional Narrative Information—While costs presented in these formats are descriptive in themselves they do not tell the full story of a project’s design. Narrative description of the construction work should also be an integral part of any complete presentation. Reference and description of this narrative form can be found in Practice E 1804
A detailed description of the presentation formats now follows. These descriptions are provided in eight sections, each intended to aid understanding of a particular facet of the formats:
|Element Inclusions and Exclusions||Section 7|
|Basic Rules||Section 8|
|Numeric Precision||Section 10|
|Estimate Calculation||Section 11|
|Analysis Calculation||Section 12|
|Variations and Additions||Section 13|
1.1 This practice covers the concurrent use of relevant ASTM standards for the preparation of elemental cost estimates, summaries, and analyses and specifically their presentation in a concise, consistent, and logical manner.
1.2 While the style and directions use construction terms applied to buildings, the principles apply equally well to other forms of construction where appropriate elemental classifications exist.
1.3 This practice is not an estimating manual, nor is it a guide to the skills and knowledge required of an estimator or other cost professional.
Note 1—The skills and knowledge acquired by a trained and experienced estimator are essential to the successful application of any elemental presentation format. They are the foundation of any estimate and the underpinning knowledge required when applying the elemental technique.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E631 Terminology of Building Constructions
E833 Terminology of Building Economics
E1557 Classification for Building Elements and Related Sitework--UNIFORMAT II
E1804 Practice for Performing and Reporting Cost Analysis During the Design Phase of a Project
E1836 Practice for Building Floor Area Measurements for Facility Management
E2083 Classification for Building Construction Field Requirements, and Office Overhead & Profit
E2168 Classification for Allowance, Contingency, and Reserve Sums in Building Construction Estimating
BasicInstructionalMo Available from ASTM International Headquarters. Order Adjunct No. .
ICS Number Code 03.100.20 (Trade. Commercial function. Marketing)
UNSPSC Code 30000000(Structures and Building and Construction and Manufacturing Components and Supplies); 81120000(Economics)