ASTM E2478 - 11

    Standard Practice for Determining Damage-Based Design Stress for Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) Materials Using Acoustic Emission

    Active Standard ASTM E2478 | Developed by Subcommittee: E07.04

    Book of Standards Volume: 03.03


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    Significance and Use

    The damage-based design approach will permit an additional method of design for GFRP materials. This is a very useful technique to determine the performance of different types of resins and composition of GFRP materials in order to develop a damage tolerant and reliable design. This AE-based method is not unique, other damage-sensitive evaluation methods can also be used.

    This practice involves the use of acoustic emission instrumentation and examination techniques as a means of damage detection to support a destructive test, in order to derive the damage-based design stress.

    This practice is not intended as a definitive predictor of long-term performance of GFRP materials (such as those used in vessels). For this reason, codes and standards require cyclic proof testing of prototypes (for example, vessels) which are not a part of this practice.

    Other design methods exist and are permitted.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice details procedures for establishing the direct stress and shear stress damage-based design values for use in the damage-based design criterion for materials to be used in GFRP vessels and other GFRP structures. The practice uses data derived from acoustic emission examination of four-point beam bending tests and in-plane shear tests (see ASME Section X, Article RT-8).

    1.2 The onset of lamina damage is indicated by the presence of significant acoustic emission during the reload portion of load/reload cycles. Significant emission is defined with historic index.

    1.3 UnitsThe values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units which are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D790 Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials

    D3846 Test Method for In-Plane Shear Strength of Reinforced Plastics

    D4255/D4255M Test Method for In-Plane Shear Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials by the Rail Shear Method

    E543 Specification for Agencies Performing Nondestructive Testing

    E976 Guide for Determining the Reproducibility of Acoustic Emission Sensor Response

    E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations

    E2374 Guide for Acoustic Emission System Performance Verification

    ASME Documents

    ASMESectionV,Article Acoustic Emission Examination of Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Vessels

    Other Standards

    NAS-410 Certification and Qualification of Nondestructive Test Personnel Available from Aerospace Industries Association of America, Inc. (AIA), 1000 Wilson Blvd., Suite 1700, Arlington, VA 22209-3928, http://www.aia-aerospace.org.


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 59.100.10 (Textile glass materials)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    DOI: 10.1520/E2478-11

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