Significance and Use
The procedures outlined here are grounded in the generally accepted body of knowledge and experience in the field of forensic document examination. By following these procedures, a forensic document examiner can reliably reach an opinion concerning whether two or more documents produced with toner technology are from the same device, whether a particular device created the document, or the determination of the make or model of a device.
1.1 This guide provides procedures that should be used by forensic document examiners (Guide E 444) for examinations of documents produced with toner technology, and related procedures.
1.2 These procedures are applicable whether the examination is of questioned and known item(s) or of exclusively questioned item(s).
1.3 These procedures include evaluation of the sufficiency of the material available for examination.
1.4 The particular methods used in a given case will depend upon the nature and sufficiency of the material available for examination.
1.5 This guide may not cover all aspects of unusual or uncommon examinations.
1.6 These methods are applicable to examinations involving photocopiers, printers, facsimile devices, and multifunction devices using toner technology.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E444 Guide for Scope of Work of Forensic Document Examiners
E1658 Terminology for Expressing Conclusions of Forensic Document Examiners
E1732 Terminology Relating to Forensic Science
E2195 Terminology Relating to the Examination of Questioned Documents
E2291 Guide for Indentation Examinations
F221 Terminology Relating to Carbon Paper and Inked Ribbon Products and Images Made Therefrom
F909 Terminology Relating to Printers
F1125 Terminology of Image Quality in Impact Printing Systems
F1156 Terminology Relating to Product Counterfeit Protection Systems
F1424 Test Method for Estimating Toner Usage in Full-Color Copiers Utilizing Dry Mono- or Dual-Component Toners
F1434 Practice for Estimating the Performance of a Fuser Oil in an Electrostatic Copier or Printer
F1457 Terminology Relating to Laser Printers
facsimile devices; forensic sciences; photocopiers; questioned documents; toner;
ICS Number Code 37.100.10 (Reproduction equipment)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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