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Significance and Use
Conformable Eddy-Current Sensors—Conformable, eddy-current sensors can be used on both flat and curved surfaces, including fillets, cylindrical surfaces, etc. When used with models for predicting the sensor response and appropriate algorithms, these sensors can measure variations in physical properties, such as electrical conductivity and/or magnetic permeability, as well as thickness of conductive coatings on any substrate and nonconductive coatings on conductive substrates or on a conducting coating. These property variations can be used to detect and characterize heterogeneous regions within the conductive coatings, for example, regions of locally higher porosity.
Sensors and Sensor Arrays—Depending on the application, either a single-sensing element sensor or a sensor array can be used for coating characterization. A sensor array would provide a better capability to map spatial variations in coating thickness and/or conductivity (reflecting, for example, porosity variations) and provide better throughput for scanning large areas. The size of the sensor footprint and the size and number of sensing elements within an array depend on the application requirements and constraints, and the nonconductive (for example, ceramic) coating thickness.
Coating Thickness Range—The conductive coating thickness range over which a sensor performs best depends on the difference between the electrical conductivity of the substrate and conductive coating and available frequency range. For example, a specific sensor geometry with a specific frequency range for impedance measurements may provide acceptable performance for an MCrAlY coating over a nickel-alloy substrate for a relatively wide range of conductive coating thickness, for example, from 75 to 400 μm (0.003 to 0.016 in.). Yet, for another conductive coating-substrate combination, this range may be 10 to 100 μm (0.0004 to 0.004 in.). The coating characterization performance may also depend on the thickness of a nonconductive topcoat. For any coating system, performance verification on representative coated specimens is critical to establishing the range of optimum performance. For nonconductive, for example, ceramic, coatings the thickness measurement range increases with an increase of the spatial wavelength of the sensor (for example, thicker coatings can be measured with larger sensor winding spatial wavelength). For nonconductive coatings, when roughness of the coating may have a significant effect on the thickness measurement, independent measurements of the nonconductive coating roughness, for example, by profilometry may provide a correction for the roughness effects.
Process-Affected Zone—For some processes, for example, shot peening, the process-affected zone can be represented by an effective layer thickness and conductivity. These values can in turn be used to assess process quality. A strong correlation must be demonstrated between these “effective coating” properties and process quality.
Three-Unknown Algorithm—Use of multi-frequency impedance measurements and a three-unknown algorithm permits independent determination of three unknowns: (1) thickness of conductive nonmagnetic coatings, (2) conductivity of conductive nonmagnetic coatings, and (3) lift-off that provides a measure of the nonconductive coating thickness.
Accuracy—Depending on the material properties and frequency range, there is an optimal measurement performance range for each coating system. The instrument, its air standardization and/or reference substrate standardization, and its operation permit the coating thickness to be determined within ±15 % of its true thickness for coating thickness within the optimal range and within ±30 % outside the optimal range. Better performance may be required for some applications.
1.1 This practice covers the use of conformable eddy-current sensors for nondestructive characterization of coatings without standardization on coated reference parts. It includes the following: (1) thickness measurement of a conductive coating on a conductive substrate, (2) detection and characterization of local regions of increased porosity of a conductive coating, and (3) measurement of thickness for nonconductive coatings on a conductive substrate or on a conductive coating. This practice includes only nonmagnetic coatings on either magnetic (μ ≠ μ0) or nonmagnetic (μ = μ0) substrates. This practice can also be used to measure the effective thickness of a process-affected zone (for example, shot peened layer for aluminum alloys, alpha case for titanium alloys). For specific types of coated parts, the user may need a more specific procedure tailored to a specific application.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
B244 Test Method for Measurement of Thickness of Anodic Coatings on Aluminum and of Other Nonconductive Coatings on Nonmagnetic Basis Metals with Eddy-Current Instruments
D7091 Practice for Nondestructive Measurement of Dry Film Thickness of Nonmagnetic Coatings Applied to Ferrous Metals and Nonmagnetic, Nonconductive Coatings Applied to Non-Ferrous Metals
E376 Practice for Measuring Coating Thickness by Magnetic-Field or Eddy-Current (Electromagnetic) Testing Methods
E543 Specification for Agencies Performing Nondestructive Testing
E1004 Test Method for Determining Electrical Conductivity Using the Electromagnetic (Eddy-Current) Method
E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
G12 Test Method for Nondestructive Measurement of Film Thickness of Pipeline Coatings on Steel
ASNT DocumentsANSI/ASNT-CP-189 Standard for Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel
AIA StandardNAS410 Certification and Qualification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel Available from Aerospace Industries Association of America, Inc. (AIA), 1000 Wilson Blvd., Suite 1700, Arlington, VA 22209-3928, http://www.aia-aerospace.org. (Replacement standard for MIL-STD-410.)
ICS Number Code 25.220.01 (Surface treatment and coating in general)