ASTM E2277 - 14

    Standard Guide for Design and Construction of Coal Ash Structural Fills

    Active Standard ASTM E2277 | Developed by Subcommittee: E50.03

    Book of Standards Volume: 11.05


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 General:

    4.1.1 Many CCPs are suitable materials for the construction of engineered structural fills. CCPs may be used as: structural fill for building sites and foundations; embankments for highways and railroads, road bases, dikes, and levees; and in any other application requiring a compacted fill material. Their low unit weight, relatively high shear strength, ease of handling, and compaction make CCPs useful as fill material. However, the specific engineering and environmental properties of these materials can vary from source to source and must be evaluated for each material, or combination of materials, to be used for an engineered structural fill. Information contained in Guide D5759 may be applicable to some CCPs to be used in engineered structural fills. AASHTO Standard Practice PP059-09-UL also addresses the use of coal combustion fly ash in embankments. The requirements for the type of CCPs that can be used for specific engineered structural fills may also vary because of local site conditions or the intended use of the fill, or both. Environmental considerations are addressed in Section 5.

    4.1.2 CCPs can be a cost-effective fill material. In many areas, they are available in bulk quantities at a reasonable cost. The use of CCPs conserves other resources and reduces the expenditures required for the purchase, permitting, and operation of a soil borrow pit. CCPs often can be delivered to a job site at near optimum moisture content and generally do not require additional crushing, screening, or processing as compared to comparable native materials.

    4.1.3 Use of CCPs conserves natural resources by avoiding extraction or mining of soils, aggregates, or similar fill material that also conserves energy and reduces greenhouse gas emissions.

    4.1.4 The volume of beneficially used CCPs preserves valuable landfill space.

    4.2 Regulatory Framework:

    4.2.1 Federal—Currently, there are no federal regulations addressing the beneficial use of CCPs. States and local jurisdictions have oversight of CCP management and beneficial use activities within their states

    4.2.2 State and Local Jurisdictions—Laws and regulations regarding the use of CCPs vary by state and local jurisdictions. It is incumbent upon the project owner and designer to determine any local or state guidance, policies, or regulations pertaining to the use of CCPs.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide covers procedures for the design and construction of engineered structural fills using coal combustion products (CCPs) including but not limited to fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag or other CCPs that can meet the requirements of an engineered fill as described herein. CCPs may be used alone or blended with soils or other suitable materials to achieve desired geotechnical properties.

    1.2 This guide describes the unique design and construction considerations that may apply to engineered structural fills constructed of with CCPs that have been adequately characterized as being suitable for this beneficial use.

    1.3 Beneficial utilization of CCPs consistent with this standard conserves land, natural resources, and

    1.4 This guide applies only to CCPs produced primarily by the combustion of coal.

    1.5 The testing, engineering, and construction practices for coal ash fills are similar to generally accepted practices for natural soil fills. Coal ash structural fills should be designed using generally accepted engineering practices. However, when CCPs are used in saturated conditions such as ponds or impoundments, the potential for liquefaction may need to be considered.

    1.6 Laws and regulations governing the use of coal ash vary by state. The user of this guide has the responsibility to determine and comply with applicable requirements.

    1.7 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

    1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C150/E150M Specification for Portland Cement

    C188 Test Method for Density of Hydraulic Cement

    C311 Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolans for Use in Portland-Cement Concrete

    C593 Specification for Fly Ash and Other Pozzolans for Use With Lime for Soil Stabilization

    C595/C595M Specification for Blended Hydraulic Cements

    C618 Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete

    C1157 Performance Specification for Hydraulic Cement

    C1600 Specification for Rapid Hardening Hydraulic Cement

    D75 Practice for Sampling Aggregates

    D422 Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils

    D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids

    D698 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))

    D854 Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer

    D1195/D1195M Test Method for Repetitive Static Plate Load Tests of Soils and Flexible Pavement Components, for Use in Evaluation and Design of Airport and Highway Pavements

    D1196/D1996M Test Method for Nonrepetitive Static Plate Load Tests of Soils and Flexible Pavement Components, for Use in Evaluation and Design of Airport and Highway Pavements

    D1452 Practice for Soil Exploration and Sampling by Auger Borings

    D1556 Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by Sand-Cone Method

    D1557 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))

    D1586 Test Method for Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils

    D1883 Test Method for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils

    D2166 Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil

    D2167 Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Rubber Balloon Method

    D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass

    D2435 Test Methods for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils Using Incremental Loading

    D2844 Test Method for Resistance R-Value and Expansion Pressure of Compacted Soils

    D2850 Test Method for Unconsolidated-Undrained Triaxial Compression Test on Cohesive Soils

    D2922 Test Methods for Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate in Place by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)

    D3550 Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils

    D3877 Test Methods for One-Dimensional Expansion, Shrinkage, and Uplift Pressure of Soil-Lime Mixtures

    D3987 Practice for Shake Extraction of Solid Waste with Water

    D4253 Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table

    D4254 Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density

    D4429 Test Method for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of Soils in Place

    D4767 Test Method for Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Compression Test for Cohesive Soils

    D4959 Test Method for Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil By Direct Heating

    D4972 Test Method for pH of Soils

    D5084 Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter

    D5239 Practice for Characterizing Fly Ash for Use in Soil Stabilization

    D5550 Test Method for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Gas Pycnometer

    D5759 Guide for Characterization of Coal Fly Ash and Clean Coal Combustion Fly Ash for Potential Uses

    D7181 Test Method for Consolidated Drained Triaxial Compression Test for Soils

    E2201 Terminology for Coal Combustion Products

    G51 Test Method for Measuring pH of Soil for Use in Corrosion Testing

    G57 Test Method for Field Measurement of Soil Resistivity Using the Wenner Four-Electrode Method

    AASHOTO Standard

    PP059–09&ndash Standard Practice for Coal Combustion Fly Ash for Embankments

    AASHTO Standards

    T288 Determining Minimum Laboratory Soil Resistivity

    T289 Determining pH of Soil for Use in Corrosion Testing

    T290 Determining Water Soluble Sulfate Ion Content in Soil

    T291 Determining Water Soluble Chloride Ion Content in Soil

    U.S. EPA Standard

    SW846 Test Methods for Evaluationg Solid Waste: Physical/Chemical Methods

    OSHA Standard

    29CFRPart1910.1200 Hazard Communication


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.020.40 (Pollution, pollution control and conservation)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 77120000(Pollution tracking and monitoring and rehabilitation)


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/E2277

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM E2277-14, Standard Guide for Design and Construction of Coal Ash Structural Fills, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014, www.astm.org

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