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Significance and Use
Due to safety considerations, the Compressed Gas Association (CGA) and others have produced guidelines which address in-service inspection of NGV fuel containers (see 2.2-2.4). AE examination is listed as an alternative to the minimum three-year visual examination which generally requires that the container be removed from the vehicle to expose the entire container surface. The AE method allows “in-situ” examination of the container.
Slow-fill pressurization must proceed at flow rates that do not produce background noise from flow of the pressurizing medium. Acoustic emission data are recorded throughout a pressurization range (that is, 50 % to 100 % of AE examination pressure).
Fast-fill pressurization can be used if hold periods are provided. Acoustic emission data are recorded only during the hold periods.
Note 1—Fast-fill pressurization is less appropriate for carbon (or graphite) composites due to the lower sensitivity of carbon fibers to stress rupture compared to other fibers.
Background noise above the threshold will contaminate the AE data and render them useless. Users must be aware of the following common causes of background noise: high fill rate (measurable flow noise); mechanical contact with the vessel by objects; electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI) from nearby broadcasting facilities and from other sources; leaks at pipe or hose connections and airborne particles, insects, rain and snow. This practice should not be used if background noise cannot be eliminated or controlled.
5.2 Sensitivity is influenced by factors that affect elastic wave propagation, sensor coupling and signal processor settings.
5.3 It is possible to measure AE from AE sources that cannot be verified by other NDE methods.
1.1 This practice provides guidelines for acoustic emission (AE) examination of filament-wound composite pressure vessels, for example, the type used for fuel tanks in vehicles which use natural gas fuel.
1.2 This practice requires pressurization to a level equal to or greater than what is encountered in normal use. The tanks' pressurization history must be known in order to use this practice. Pressurization medium may be gas or liquid.
1.3 This practice is limited to vessels designed for less than 690 bar [10,000 psi] maximum allowable working pressure and water volume less than 1 m3 or 1000 L [35.4 ft3].
1.4 AE measurements are used to detect emission sources. Other nondestructive examination (NDE) methods may be used to gain additional insight into the emission source. Procedures for other NDE methods are beyond the scope of this practice.
1.5 This practice applies to examination of new and in-service filament-wound composite pressure vessels.
1.6 This practice applies to examinations conducted at ambient temperatures above 20°C [70°F]. This practice may be used at ambient temperatures below 20°C [70°F] if provision has been made to fill to the tank's rated pressure at 20°C [70°F].
1.7 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary statements are given in Section 8.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
Natural Gas Vehicle StandardAmericanNationalStan ANSI/AGA/NGV2 Available from American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 W. 43rd St., 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, http://www.ansi.org.
Compressed Gas Association StandardPamphletC-6.4, Methods for Visual Inspection of AGA NGV2 Containers Available from Compressed Gas Association (CGA), 4221 Walney Rd., 5th Floor, Chantilly, VA 20151-2923, http://www.cganet.com.
U.S. Department of Transportation ReferenceNHTSAFederalMotorVeh No. 304, March 27, 1995 Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, DODSSP, Bldg. 4, Section D, 700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5098, http://www.dodssp.daps.mil.
E543 Specification for Agencies Performing Nondestructive Testing
E650 Guide for Mounting Piezoelectric Acoustic Emission Sensors
E976 Guide for Determining the Reproducibility of Acoustic Emission Sensor Response
E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
E2374 Guide for Acoustic Emission System Performance Verification
ICS Number Code 17.140.01 (Acoustic measurements and noise abatement in general); 23.020.300