ASTM E2103 / E2103M - 13

    Standard Classification for Bridge Elements—UNIFORMAT II

    Active Standard ASTM E2103 / E2103M | Developed by Subcommittee: E06.81

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.11


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 This standard builds on the concepts and organizational framework first established in Classification E1557. This classification describes bridge elements that are major components of most highway, railroad, and pedestrian bridges. The elemental classification is the common thread linking activities and participants in a bridge project from initial planning through operations, maintenance, and disposal.

    Note 1As this classification refers solely to permanent, physical parts of any construction, two additional classifications, Classifications E2083 and E2168, need to be included when calculating construction cost. These standards provide for the inclusion of construction enabling, temporary, and risk mitigation cost figures. Procedures for reporting all these figures are described in Practices E1804 and E2514 and Classification E2516. While these three latter standards were primarily written for building construction, they are nonetheless appropriate and readily applied to other forms of construction as well.

    4.2 The Users of Bridge UNIFORMAT II Include:

    4.2.1 Financial and Investment—Typically owners, developers, bankers, lenders, accountants, and financial managers.

    4.2.2 Implementation—Primarily project managers; facilities programmers; designers, including engineers; and project controls specialists, including cost planners, estimators, schedulers, specification writers, and risk analysts.

    4.2.3 Facilities Management—Comprising property portfolio managers, operating staff, and maintenance staff.

    4.2.4 Others—Public officials, manufacturers, educators, students, and other project stakeholders.

    4.3 Apply This Classification When Undertaking the Following Work on Bridges:5 

    4.3.1 Financing and Investing:

    4.3.1.1 Structuring costs on an elemental basis for economic evaluations (Guide E1185 and Practices E917, E964, E1057, E1074, E1121, and E1804) early in the design process helps reduce the cost of early financial analysis and can contribute to substantial design and operational savings before decisions have been made that limit options for potential savings.

    4.3.2 Implementing:

    4.3.2.1 Cost Modeling, Cost Planning, Estimating and Controlling Project Time and Cost During Planning, Design, and Construction—Use the bridge UNIFORMAT II classification to prepare budgets and to establish elemental cost plans before design begins. Project managers and project controls specialists use these cost plans against which to measure and control project cost, and quality, and to set design-to-cost targets.

    4.3.2.2 Conducting Value Engineering Workshops—Conducting value engineering workshops (Practices E1699 and E2013). Use this classification as a checklist to ensure that alternatives for all elements of significant cost in the bridge project are analyzed in the creativity phase of the job plan. Also, use the elemental cost data to expedite the development of cost models for bridge systems.

    4.3.2.3 Developing Initial Project Master Schedules—Since projects are essentially built element by element, UNIFORMAT II classifications are an appropriate basis for preparing construction schedules at the start of the design process. Project managers and project controls specialists use these time plans against which to measure and control project time (Practice E2691), and to set milestone target dates.

    4.3.2.4 Performing Risk Analyses—Simulation (Guides E1369 and E2506) is one technique for developing probability distributions of bridge costs when evaluating the economic risk in undertaking a bridge project. Use individual elements and group elements in this classification for developing probability distributions of elemental costs. From these distributions, build up probability distributions of total costs to establish project contingencies (Practices E1946 and E2168) or to serve as inputs to an economic analysis.

    4.3.2.5 Structuring Preliminary Project Descriptions During the Conceptual Design Phase—This classification facilitates the description of the scope of the project in a clear, concise, and logical sequence for presentation to the client; it provides the basis for the preparation of more detailed elemental estimates during the early concept and preliminary design phases, and it enhances communication between designers and clients by providing a clear statement of the designer’s intent.

    4.3.2.6 Coding and Referencing Standard Details In Computer-Aided Design Systems—This classification allows a designer, for example, to reference an assembly according to this classification’s element designations and build up a database of standard details. This is particularly appropriate to design modeling and building information modeling (BIM) applications.

    4.3.3 Managing Facilities:

    4.3.3.1 Recording and writing property condition assessment reports in a structured way, using UNIFORMAT II classifications, provides for a consistent, accessible, and searchable database of real property inventory.

    4.3.4 Other Activities:

    4.3.4.1 Structuring cost manuals and recording construction, operating, and maintenance costs in a computer database. Having a cost manual or computer database in an elemental format assists the preparation of an economic analysis early in the design stage and at a reasonable cost.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This standard establishes a classification of bridge elements within the UNIFORMAT II family of elemental classifications. It covers most highway bridges, railroad bridges, and pedestrian bridges.

    1.2 UNIFORMAT II classifications have an elemental format similar to the original UNIFORMAT2 building elemental classification. However, the title UNIFORMAT II differs from the original in that it now takes into consideration a wide range of constructed entities that collectively form the built environment.

    1.3 Elements, as defined here and in other UNIFORMAT II Classifications, are major physical components that are common within constructed entities. Elements perform their given function(s), regardless of the design specification, construction method, or materials used.

    1.4 This elemental classification serves as a consistent reference for analysis, evaluation, and monitoring during the feasibility, planning, and design stages when constructing bridges.

    1.5 Using UNIFORMAT II elemental classifications ensures a consistency in the economic evaluation of construction projects over time and from project to project.

    1.6 UNIFORMAT II classifications also enhance reporting at all stages of a constructed entity’s life cycle—from feasibility and planning through the preparation of working documents, construction, maintenance, rehabilitation, and disposal.

    1.7 This classification is unsuitable for process applications or for preparing trade estimates.

    1.8 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

    1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    E631 Terminology of Building Constructions

    E833 Terminology of Building Economics

    E917 Practice for Measuring Life-Cycle Costs of Buildings and Building Systems

    E964 Practice for Measuring Benefit-to-Cost and Savings-to-Investment Ratios for Buildings and Building Systems

    E1057 Practice for Measuring Internal Rate of Return and Adjusted Internal Rate of Return for Investments in Buildings and Building Systems

    E1074 Practice for Measuring Net Benefits and Net Savings for Investments in Buildings and Building Systems

    E1121 Practice for Measuring Payback for Investments in Buildings and Building Systems

    E1185 Guide for Selecting Economic Methods for Evaluating Investments in Buildings and Building Systems

    E1369 Guide for Selecting Techniques for Treating Uncertainty and Risk in the Economic Evaluation of Buildings and Building Systems

    E1699 Practice for Performing Value Analysis (VA) of Buildings and Building Systems and Other Constructed Projects

    E1804 Practice for Performing and Reporting Cost Analysis During the Design Phase of a Project

    E1946 Practice for Measuring Cost Risk of Buildings and Building Systems and Other Constructed Projects

    E2013 Practice for Constructing FAST Diagrams and Performing Function Analysis During Value Analysis Study

    E2506 Guide for Developing a Cost-Effective Risk Mitigation Plan for New and Existing Constructed Facilities

    E2691 Practice for Job Productivity Measurement

    ASTM Adjuncts

    DiscountFactorTables Adjunct to Practices , , , , and


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 93.040 (Bridge construction)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/E2103_E2103M

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM E2103 / E2103M-13, Standard Classification for Bridge Elements—UNIFORMAT II, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013, www.astm.org

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