ASTM E21 - 09

    Standard Test Methods for Elevated Temperature Tension Tests of Metallic Materials

    Active Standard ASTM E21 | Developed by Subcommittee: E28.04

    Book of Standards Volume: 03.01


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    Significance and Use

    The elevated-temperature tension test gives a useful estimate of the ability of metals to withstand the application of applied tensile forces. Using established and conventional relationships it can be used to give some indication of probable behavior under other simple states of stress, such as compression, shear, etc. The ductility values give a comparative measure of the capacity of different materials to deform locally without cracking and thus to accommodate a local stress concentration or overstress; however, quantitative relationships between tensile ductility and the effect of stress concentrations at elevated temperature are not universally valid. A similar comparative relationship exists between tensile ductility and strain-controlled, low-cycle fatigue life under simple states of stress. The results of these tension tests can be considered as only a questionable comparative measure of the strength and ductility for service times of thousands of hours. Therefore, the principal usefulness of the elevated-temperature tension test is to assure that the tested material is similar to reference material when other measures such as chemical composition and microstructure also show the two materials are similar.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods cover procedure and equipment for the determination of tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, and reduction of area of metallic materials at elevated temperatures.

    1.2 Determination of modulus of elasticity and proportional limit are not included.

    1.3 Tension tests under conditions of rapid heating or rapid strain rates are not included.

    1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines

    E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing

    E8/E8M Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials

    E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications

    E74 Practice of Calibration of Force-Measuring Instruments for Verifying the Force Indication of Testing Machines

    E83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems

    E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods

    E220 Test Method for Calibration of Thermocouples By Comparison Techniques

    E633 Guide for Use of Thermocouples in Creep and Stress-Rupture Testing to 1800F (1000C) in Air

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 77.040.10 (Mechanical testing of metals)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    DOI: 10.1520/E0021-09

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