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Significance and Use
4.1 The oxygen consumption principle, used for the measurements described here, is based on the observation that, generally, the net heat of combustion is directly related to the amount of oxygen required for combustion (1).7 Approximately 13.1 MJ of heat are released per 1-kg of oxygen consumed. Test specimens in the test are burned in ambient air conditions, while being subjected to a prescribed external heating source.
4.1.1 This technique is not appropriate for use on its own when the combustible fuel is an oxidizer or an explosive agent, which release oxygen. Further analysis is required in such cases (see Appendix X2).
4.2 The heat release is determined by the measurement of the oxygen consumption, as determined by the oxygen concentration and the flow rate in the combustion product stream, in a full scale environment.
4.3 The primary measurements are oxygen concentration and exhaust gas flow rate. Additional measurements include the specimen ignitability, the smoke obscuration generated, the specimen mass loss rate, the effective heat of combustion and the yields of combustion products from the test specimen.
4.4 The oxygen consumption technique is used in different types of test methods. Intermediate scale (Test Method E1623, UL 1975) and full scale (Test Method D5424, Test Method D5537, Test Method E1537, Test Method E1590, Test Method E1822, ISO 9705, NFPA 265, NFPA 266, NFPA 267, NFPA 286, UL 1685) test methods, as well as unstandardized room scale experiments following Guide E603, using this technique involve a large instrumented exhaust hood, where oxygen concentration is measured, either standing alone or positioned outside a doorway. A large test specimen is placed either under the hood or inside the room. This practice is intended to address issues associated with equipment requiring a large instrumented hood and not stand-alone test apparatuses with small test specimens.
4.4.1 Small scale test methods using this technique, such as Test Methods D6113, E1354, E1474 and E1740, as well as ISO 5660 internationally, are based on a stand-alone apparatus, wherein a small specimen is tested within the equipment.
4.4.2 Another small scale heat release test method, Test Method E906, does not use the oxygen consumption technique.
1.2 The methodology described herein is used in a number of ASTM test methods, in a variety of unstandardized test methods, and for research purposes. This practice will facilitate coordination of generic requirements, which are not specific to the item under test.
1.3 The principal fire-test-response characteristics obtained from the test methods using this technique are those associated with heat release from the specimens tested, as a function of time. Other fire-test-response characteristics also are determined.
1.4 This practice is intended to apply to the conduction of different types of tests, including both some in which the objective is to assess the comparative fire performance of products releasing low amounts of heat or smoke and some in which the objective is to assess whether flashover will occur.
1.6 For use of the SI system of units in referee decisions, see IEEE/ASTM SI-10,. The units given in parentheses are provided for information only.
1.7 This standard is used to measure and describe the response of materials, products, or assemblies to heat and flame under controlled conditions, but does not by itself incorporate all factors required for fire hazard or fire risk assessment of the materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions.
1.8 Fire testing of products and materials is inherently hazardous, and adequate safeguards for personnel and property shall be employed in conducting these tests. Fire testing involves hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. See also Section 7.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D5424 Test Method for Smoke Obscuration of Insulating Materials Contained in Electrical or Optical Fiber Cables When Burning in a Vertical Cable Tray Configuration
D5537 Test Method for Heat Release, Flame Spread, Smoke Obscuration, and Mass Loss Testing of Insulating Materials Contained in Electrical or Optical Fiber Cables When Burning in a Vertical Cable Tray Configuration
D6113 Test Method for Using a Cone Calorimeter to Determine Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Insulating Materials Contained in Electrical or Optical Fiber Cables
E84 Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials
E176 Terminology of Fire Standards
E603 Guide for Room Fire Experiments
E906 Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using a Thermopile Method
E1354 Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
E1474 Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate of Upholstered Furniture and Mattress Components or Composites Using a Bench Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
E1537 Test Method for Fire Testing of Upholstered Furniture
E1590 Test Method for Fire Testing of Mattresses
E1623 Test Method for Determination of Fire and Thermal Parameters of Materials, Products, and Systems Using an Intermediate Scale Calorimeter (ICAL)
E1740 Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate and Other Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Wall Covering or Ceiling Covering Composites Using a Cone Calorimeter
E1822 Test Method for Fire Testing of Stacked Chairs
ISO StandardsISO9705 Fire Tests - Full-Scale Room Test for Surface Products
California Bureau of Home Furnishings and Thermal Insulation StandardsCATechnicalBulletin1 Flammability Test Procedure for Seating Furniture for Use in Public Occupancies
NFPA StandardsNFPA289 Standard Method of Fire Test for Individual Fuel Packages
UL StandardsUL1975 Standard Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for Decorative Purposes
ICS Number Code 17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
UNSPSC Code 41112201(Calorimeters)