1.1 This guide covers methods for selection and application of coal combustion products (CCPs) for use in the chemical stabilization of trace elements in wastes and wastewater. These elements include, but are not limited to, arsenic, barium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc. Chemical stabilization may be accompanied by solidification of the waste treated. Solidification is not a requirement for the stabilization of many trace elements, but does offer advantages in waste handling and in reduced permeability of the stabilized waste.
1.1.1 Solidification is an important factor in treatment of wastes and especially wastewaters. Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) technology is often used to treat wastes containing free liquids. This guide addresses the use of CCPs as a stabilizing agent without the addition of other materials; however, stabilization or chemical fixation may also be achieved by using combinations of CCPs and other products such as lime, lime kiln dust, cement kiln dust, cement, and others. CCPs used alone or in combination with other reagents promote stabilization of many inorganic constituents through a variety of mechanisms. These mechanisms include precipitation as carbonates, silicates, sulfates, and so forth; microencapsulation of the waste particles through pozzolanic reactions; formation of metal precipitates; and formation of hydrated phases (). Long-term performance of the stabilized waste is an issue that must be addressed in considering any S/S technology. In this guide, several tests are recommended to aid in evaluating the long-term performance of the stabilized wastes.
1.2 The CCPs that are suited to this application include fly ash, spent dry scrubber sorbents, and certain advanced sulfur control by-products from processes such as duct injection and fluidized-bed combustion (FBC).
1.3 The wastes or wastewater, or both, containing the problematic inorganic species will likely be highly variable, so the chemical characteristics of the waste or wastewater to be treated must be determined and considered in the selection and application of any stabilizing agent, including CCPs. In any waste stabilization process, laboratory-scale tests for compatibility between the candidate waste or wastewater for stabilization with one or more selected CCPs and final waste stability are recommended prior to full-scale application of the stabilizing agent.
1.4 This guide does not intend to recommend full-scale processes or procedures for waste stabilization. Full-scale processes should be designed and carried out by qualified scientists, engineers, and environmental professionals. It is recommended that stabilized materials generated at the full-scale stabilization site be subjected to testing to verify laboratory test results.
1.5 The utilization of CCPs under this guide is a component of a pollution prevention program; Guide E 1609 describes pollution prevention activities in more detail. Utilization of CCPs in this manner conserves land, natural resources, and energy.
1.6 This guide applies only to CCPs produced primarily from the combustion of coal. It does not apply to ash or other combustion products derived from the burning of waste; municipal, industrial, or commercial garbage; sewage sludge or other refuse, or both; derived fuels; wood waste products; rice hulls; agricultural waste; or other noncoal fuels.
1.7 Regulations governing the use of CCPs vary by state. The user of this guide has the responsibility to determine and comply with applicable regulations.
1.8 It is recommended that work performed under this guide be designed and carried out by qualified scientists, engineers, and environmental professionals.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C114 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Hydraulic Cement
C311 Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolans for Use in Portland-Cement Concrete
C400 Test Methods for Quicklime and Hydrated Lime for Neutralization of Waste Acid
D75 Practice for Sampling Aggregates
D422 Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils
D558 Test Methods for Moisture-Density (Unit Weight) Relations of Soil-Cement Mixtures
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D1556 Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by Sand-Cone Method
D1633 Test Methods for Compressive Strength of Molded Soil-Cement Cylinders
D1635 Test Method for Flexural Strength of Soil-Cement Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading
D2166 Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil
D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
D2922 Test Methods for Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate in Place by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
D2937 Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
D3441 Test Method for Mechanical Cone Penetration Tests of Soil
D3877 Test Methods for One-Dimensional Expansion, Shrinkage, and Uplift Pressure of Soil-Lime Mixtures
D3987 Test Method for Shake Extraction of Solid Waste with Water
D4318 Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
D4842 Test Method for Determining the Resistance of Solid Wastes to Freezing and Thawing
D4843 Test Method for Wetting and Drying Test of Solid Wastes
D4972 Test Method for pH of Soils
D5084 Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
D5239 Practice for Characterizing Fly Ash for Use in Soil Stabilization
E1609 Guide for Development and Implementation of a Pollution Prevention Program
ICS Number Code 13.030.40 (Installations and equipment for waste disposal and treatment)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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