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Significance and Use
Graded reference radiographs are intended to provide a guide enabling recognition of specific casting discontinuity types and relative severity levels that may be encountered during typical fabrication processes. Reference radiographs containing ungraded discontinuities are provided as a guide for recognition of a specific casting discontinuity type where severity levels may not be needed. These reference radiographs are intended as a basis from which manufacturers and purchasers may, by mutual agreement, select particular discontinuity classes to serve as standards representing minimum levels of acceptability (see Sections 6 and 7).
Reference radiographs represented by this standard may be used, as agreed upon in a purchaser supplier agreement, for energy levels, thicknesses or both outside the range of this standard when determined applicable for the casting service application. Severity levels of similar discontinuity categories and energy level range of E446 or E280 reference radiographs may alternatively be used, as determined appropriate for the casting service application, if so agreed upon in a purchaser supplier agreement (see Section 1 and 5.1).
Procedures for evaluation of production radiographs using applicable reference radiographs of this standard are prescribed in Section 8; however, there may be manufacturing-purchaser issues involving specific casting service applications where it may be appropriate to modify or alter such requirements. Where such modifications may be appropriate for the casting application, all such changes shall be specifically called-out in the purchaser supplier agreement or contractual document. Section 9 addresses purchaser supplier requisites where weld repairs to castings may be required.
1.1 These reference radiographs illustrate various categories, types and severity levels of discontinuities occurring in steel castings that have section thicknesses of 2 to less than 4½ in. (50.8 to 114 mm). The reference radiograph films are an adjunct to this document and must be purchased separately from ASTM International, if needed (see 2.2). Categories and severity levels for each discontinuity type represented by these reference radiographs are described in 1.2.1. Note that the basis of application for these reference radiographs requires a prior purchaser/supplier agreement of radiographic examination attributes and classification criterion as described in Sections 4, 6, and 7 of this standard. Reference radiographs for other steel casting thicknesses may be found in Reference Radiograph standards E446 and E280. Reference Radiograph standards E446 and E280 provide some overlap of severity levels for similar discontinuity categories within the same energy level range (see 4.2, 5.1, and 6.3)
1.2 These reference radiographs consist of three separate volumes as follows:
1.2.1 Volume I: 1–MV X Rays and Iridium 192 (called “1 to 2–Mev X rays” in previous editions)-Set of 28 plates (nominal 5 by 8 in. (127 by 203 mm) in a 15 by 17 in. (381 by 432 mm) ring binder).
1.2.2 Volume II: 2–MV X Rays and Cobalt-60 (called “gamma rays” in previous editions). This includes cobalt-60 or equivalent isotope radiation and from 2–MV up to 4–MV X rays- Set of 28 plates (nominal 5 by 8 in.) in a 15 by 17 in. ring binder.
1.2.3 Volume III: 4–MV to 30–MV X rays (called “10 to 24 Mev X rays” in previous editions)- Set of 28 plates (nominal 5 by 8 in.) in a 15 by 17 in. ring binder.
1.2.4 Unless otherwise specified in a purchaser supplier agreement (see 1.1), each volume is for comparison only with production radiographs produced with radiation energy levels within the thickness range covered by this standard. Each volume consists of three categories of graded discontinuities in increasing severity levels, and three categories of ungraded discontinuities. Reference radiographs containing ungraded discontinuities are provided as a guide for recognition of a specific casting discontinuity type where severity levels are not needed. Following is a list of discontinuity categories, types and severity levels for the adjunct reference radiographs of this standard:
188.8.131.52 Category A—Gas porosity; severity levels 1 through 5.
184.108.40.206 Category B—Sand and slag inclusions; severity levels 1 through 5.
220.127.116.11 Category C—Shrinkage; three types:
(1) Ca—linear shrinkage—severity levels 1 through 5. (Called Type 1 in previous revisions)
(2) Cb—feathery shrinkage—Severity levels 1 through 5. (Called Type 2 in previous revisions)
(3) Cc—sponge shrinkage—Severity levels 1 through 5. (Called Type 3 in previous revisions)
18.104.22.168 Category D—Crack; one illustration (D3 in pre-1972 documents).
22.214.171.124 Category E—Hot tear; one illustration in pre-1972 documents.
126.96.36.199 Category F—Insert; one illustration (EB3 in pre-1972 documents).
1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. SI values are shown for information only.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E94 Guide for Radiographic Examination
E242 Reference Radiographs for Appearances of Radiographic Images as Certain Parameters are Changed
E280 Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (412 to 12-in. (114 to 305-mm)) Steel Castings
E446 Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings Up to 2 in. (50.8 mm) in Thickness
E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations