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Significance and Use
5.1 The neutron test spectrum must be known in order to use a measured device response to predict the device performance in an operational environment ( ). Typically, neutron spectra are determined by use of a set of sensors with response functions sensitive over the neutron energy region to which the device under test (DUT) responds ( ). For silicon bipolar devices exposed in reactor neutron spectra, this effective energy range is between 0.01 and 10 MeV. A typical set of activation reactions that lack fission reactions from nuclides such as 235U, 237Np, or 239Pu, will have very poor sensitivity to the spectrum between 0.01 and 2 MeV. For a pool-type reactor spectrum, 70 % of the DUT electronic damage response may lie in this range.
5.2 When dosimeters with a significant response in the 10 keV to 2 MeV energy region, such as fission foils, are unavailable, silicon transistors may provide a dosimeter with the needed response to define the spectrum in this critical energy range. When fission foils are part of the sensor set, the silicon sensor provides confirmation of the spectral shape in this energy region.
5.3 Silicon bipolar transistors, such as type 2N2222A, are inexpensive, smaller than fission foils contained in a boron ball, and sensitive to a part of the neutron spectrum important to the damage of modern silicon electronics. They also can be used directly in arrays to map 1 Mev(Si) equivalent displacement damage fluence. The proper set of steps to take in reading the transistor-gain degradation is described in this test method.
5.4 The energy-dependence of the displacement damage function for silicon is found in . The major portion of the response for the silicon transistors will generally be above 100 keV.
1.1 This test method covers the use of 2N2222A silicon bipolar transistors as dosimetry sensors in the determination of neutron energy spectra and as 1 Mev(Si) equivalent displacement damage fluence monitors.
1.2 The neutron displacement in silicon can serve as a neutron spectrum sensor in the range 0.1 to 2.0 MeV when fission foils are not available. It has been applied in the fluence range between 2 × 1012 n/cm 2 to 1 × 1014 n/cm2 and should be useful up to 1 × 1015 n/cm2. This test method details the acquisition and use of 1 Mev(Si) equivalent fluence information for the partial determination of the neutron spectra by using 2N2222A transistors.
1.3 This sensor yields a direct measurement of the silicon 1 Mev equivalent fluence by the transfer technique.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E170 Terminology Relating to Radiation Measurements and Dosimetry
E261 Practice for Determining Neutron Fluence, Fluence Rate, and Spectra by Radioactivation Techniques
E265 Test Method for Measuring Reaction Rates and Fast-Neutron Fluences by Radioactivation of Sulfur-32
E720 Guide for Selection and Use of Neutron Sensors for Determining Neutron Spectra Employed in Radiation-Hardness Testing of Electronics
E721 Guide for Determining Neutron Energy Spectra from Neutron Sensors for Radiation-Hardness Testing of Electronics
E722 Practice for Characterizing Neutron Fluence Spectra in Terms of an Equivalent Monoenergetic Neutron Fluence for Radiation-Hardness Testing of Electronics
E844 Guide for Sensor Set Design and Irradiation for Reactor Surveillance, E 706 (IIC)
E944 Guide for Application of Neutron Spectrum Adjustment Methods in Reactor Surveillance, E 706 (IIA)
E1854 Practice for Ensuring Test Consistency in Neutron-Induced Displacement Damage of Electronic Parts
E2005 Guide for Benchmark Testing of Reactor Dosimetry in Standard and Reference Neutron Fields
E2450 Practice for Application of CaF2(Mn) Thermoluminescence Dosimeters in Mixed Neutron-Photon Environments
ICS Number Code 31.200 (Integrated circuits. Microelectronics)
UNSPSC Code 32111613(Bipolar or radio frequency bipolar transistor)
ASTM E1855-15, Standard Test Method for Use of 2N2222A Silicon Bipolar Transistors as Neutron Spectrum Sensors and Displacement Damage Monitors, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015, www.astm.orgBack to Top