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Significance and Use
5.1 This test method provides a means of measuring a variety of fire-test-response characteristics resulting from burning a stack of five stacking chairs. After ignition using a propane gas burner, the test specimen is permitted to burn freely under well-ventilated conditions. The most important fire-test-response characteristic measured in this test method is the rate of heat release, which quantifies the intensity of the fire generated.
5.2 The rate of heat release is measured by the principle of oxygen consumption. Annex A3 discusses the assumptions and limitations.
5.3 This test method also provides measures of other fire-test-response characteristics, including smoke obscuration (as the rate of smoke release, total smoke released or optical density of smoke), combustion gas release (as concentrations of combustion gases), and mass loss, that are important to making decisions on fire safety.
5.4 In the majority of fires, the most important gaseous components of smoke are the carbon oxides present in all fires. They are indicators of the toxicity of the atmosphere and of the completeness of combustion. Measurement of concentrations of carbon oxides are useful for two purposes: as part of fire hazard assessment calculations and to improve the accuracy of heat-release measurements. Other toxic combustion gases, which are specific to certain materials, are also indicators of the toxicity of the atmospheres, but are less crucial for determining combustion completeness and are optional measures; however fire hazard assessment often requires their measurement.
5.5 The type of ignition chosen (flaming source) is common in both accidental and intentional fires in public occupancies. This test method is thus applicable to stacked chairs in public occupancies. Such facilities include, but are not limited to, health-care facilities, old-age convalescent and board and care homes, college dormitories and residence halls, and hotels and motels.
5.10 Studies on the flammability performance of furniture indicate that bench-scale fire tests are useful for preliminary evaluations of component materials for substitution purposes (see Appendix X2).
5.11.2 The ignition source in this test method is a flaming source. Moreover, this particular ignition source has been shown to be able to provide a distinction among different kinds of stacked chairs. However, the fraction of actual flaming stacked chair fires occurring with ignitions more or less intense than that used here is not known.
5.11.3 It is not known whether the results of this test method will be equally valid when stacking chairs are burned under conditions different from those specified. In particular, it is unclear whether the use of a different ignition source, the same ignition source but having a different duration of flame exposure, or a different gas-flow rate will change the results.
1.2 This test method provides a means of determining the burning behavior of stacking chairs used in public occupancies by measuring specific fire-test responses when a stack of chairs is subjected to a specified flaming ignition source under well ventilated conditions.
1.4 Test data are obtained describing the burning behavior following application of a specific ignition source, from ignition until all burning has ceased, a period of 1 h has elapsed, or flashover under test conditions appears inevitable.
1.5 This test method does not provide information on the fire performance of stacked chairs under fire conditions other than those conditions specified in this test method. In particular, this test method does not apply to smoldering ignition by cigarettes. See 5.11 for further information.
1.6 The rate of heat release of the burning test specimen is measured by an oxygen consumption method. See 5.11.4 for further information.
1.7 Other measurements are the production of light-obscuring smoke and the concentrations of certain toxic gas species in the combustion gases. See 5.11.5 for further information.
1.9 This standard is used to measure and describe the response of materials, products, or assemblies to heat and flame under controlled conditions, but does not by itself incorporate all factors required for fire hazard or fire risk assessment of the materials, products or assemblies under actual fire conditions..
1.11 Use the SI system of units in referee decisions; see IEEE/ASTM SI-10. The units given in parentheses are for information only.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles
E84 Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials
E176 Terminology of Fire Standards
E800 Guide for Measurement of Gases Present or Generated During Fires
E1354 Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
E1474 Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate of Upholstered Furniture and Mattress Components or Composites Using a Bench Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
E1537 Test Method for Fire Testing of Upholstered Furniture
E1590 Test Method for Fire Testing of Mattresses
ICS Number Code 13.220.40 (Ignitability and burning behaviour of materials and products); 97.140 (Furniture)
UNSPSC Code 56101504(Chairs)