This guide is intended to help the user decide on the type of viewing conditions, visual scaling methods, and analysis that should be used to obtain reliable visual experimental data. It is also intended to illustrate the techniques that lead to visual observations that can be correlated with objective instrumental measurements of appearance attributes of objects. This guide includes a review of issues regarding the choice and design of viewing environments, an overview of various classes of visual experiments, a review of experimental techniques for threshold, matching, and scaling experiments, a review for data reduction and analysis procedures. The three different threshold and matching techniques namely, the methods of adjustment, limits, and constant stimuli, are explained. Perceptual scaling techniques reviewed include ranking, graphical rating, category scaling, paired comparisons, triadic combinations, partitioning, and magnitude estimation or production. Brief descriptions and examples, along with references to more detailed literature, are given on the appropriate types of data analysis for each experimental technique.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
1.1 This guide is intended to help the user decide on the type of viewing conditions, visual scaling methods, and analysis that should be used to obtain reliable visual data.
1.2 This guide is intended to illustrate the techniques that lead to visual observations that can be correlated with objective instrumental measurements of appearance attributes of objects. The establishment of both parts of such correlations is an objective of Committee E12.
1.3 Among ASTM standards making use of visual observations are Practices D1535, D1729, D3134, D4086, and E1478; Test Methods D2616, D3928, and D4449; and Guide E1499.
1.4 This guide does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1535 Practice for Specifying Color by the Munsell System
D1729 Practice for Visual Appraisal of Colors and Color Differences of Diffusely-Illuminated Opaque Materials
D2616 Test Method for Evaluation of Visual Color Difference With a Gray Scale
D3134 Practice for Establishing Color and Gloss Tolerances
D3928 Test Method for Evaluation of Gloss or Sheen Uniformity
D4086 Practice for Visual Evaluation of Metamerism
D4449 Test Method for Visual Evaluation of Gloss Differences Between Surfaces of Similar Appearance
E284 Terminology of Appearance
E1478 Practice for Visual Color Evaluation of Transparent Sheet Materials
E1499 Guide for Selection, Evaluation, and Training of Observers
category scaling; interval scales; magnitude estimation; matching experiments; nominal scales; ordinal scales; paired comparisons; rank ordering; ratio scales; threshold determination; visual experiments; visual scaling; Category scaling; Interval scales; Magnitude estimation rating; Nominal scales; Ordinal scales; Paired comparison test; Rank ordering; Ratio scales; Threshold analysis; Visual experiments ;
ICS Number Code 17.180.99 (Other standards related to optics and optical measurements)
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