ASTM E1620 - 97(2012)

    Standard Terminology Relating to Liquid Particles and Atomization

    Active Standard ASTM E1620 | Developed by Subcommittee: E29.02

    Book of Standards Volume: 14.02


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    1. Scope

    1.1 In a broad sense, this terminology covers terminology associated with liquid particles dispersed in gas. The principal emphasis, however, is on particles produced by the process of atomization.

    1.2 All terms, followed by their definitions, are arranged alphabetically. In addition, the terminology contains several tables wherein terms related to specific subjects are segregated and identified.

    1.3 Within the broad scope, the following specific categories are included:

    1.3.1 Terms pertaining to the structure and condition of individual particles or groups of particles as observed in nature.

    1.3.2 Terms pertaining to the structure and condition of individual particles or groups of particles produced by an atomizing device.

    1.3.3 Terms pertaining to atomizing devices according to the primary energy source responsible for spray development. (When more than one term is used for the same device or class of devices, the alternative term is followed by the preferred term.) Definitions of the devices may refer to their construction, operating principle, or distinctive spray characteristics. The atomizers, however, are not classified by their respective areas of application or end use. Moreover, the listed terms are generic and do not include brand names, trademarks, or proprietary designations.

    1.3.4 Terms pertaining to statistical parameters involving particle measurement, particle size, and size distribution functions.

    1.3.5 Terms pertaining to instruments and test procedures utilized in the characterization of liquid particles and sprays.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    TABLE 1 Summary of Atomizer Terms

    Pressure Atomizer (hydraulic atomizer, pressure atomizing nozzle, Lubbock nozzle
    pressure nozzle, single-fluid atomizer) variable orifice poppet nozzle (variable orifice pintle nozzle)
    cone atomizer (cone spray nozzle)
    hollow cone atomizerPneumatic Atomizer (air atomizing nozzle, blast nozzle, gas atomizer, gas-
    solid cone atomizer (full cone nozzle) liquid nozzle, twin-fluid atomizer, two-fluid atomizer)
    deflector atomizer (flood nozzle, flooding nozzle) air assist nozzle
    dual orifice nozzle (duple nozzle) airblast nozzle (air blast nozzle,
    duplex nozzle aerating nozzle)
    piloted airblast nozzle (simplex airblast nozzle)
    Fan Spray Atomizer: prefilming airblast nozzle
    even spray atomizer (even flow atomizer)
    flat spray atomizer (flat jet atomizer)External Mixing Pneumatic Atomizer
    Laskin nozzle
    Fog Nozzle
    Internal Mixing Pneumatic Atomizer
    Impact Atomizer: (impingement atomizer): (aerating nozzle,
    pintle atomizer Nukiyama-Tanasawa nozzle,
    splash cup atomizer effervescent atomizer)
    splash plate atomizer
    Centrifugal Atomizer (rotary atomizer, slinger)
    Impinging Jet Atomizer (impingement atomizer): rotary cup atomizer (spinning cup atomizer)
    doublet atomizer rotary disk atomizer (spinning disk atomizer)
    triplet atomizer rotary wheel atomizer
    Plain Jet Atomizer (orifice atomizer, plain orifice atomizer, single jet atomizer,Vibratory Atomizer (vibrative atomizer)
    straight stream nozzle) electromagnetic vibratory atomizer
    simplex nozzle piezoelectric vibratory atomizer
    Square Spray NozzleBerglund-Liu atomizer
    sonic nozzle
    Swirl Atomizer ultrasonic nozzle
    Swirl Chamber Atomizer (centrifugal pressure nozzle, swirl chamber vibrating needle atomizer
    atomizer) vibrating reed atomizer
    by-pass nozzle (bypass nozzle, flowback nozzle, recirculating nozzle, return
    flow nozzle, spill nozzle, spill return nozzle, spillback nozzle)Electrostatic Atomizer
    dual orifice nozzle (duplex nozzle)
    duplex nozzleShear Coaxial Injector
    simplex nozzle swirl coaxial injector
    variable-area nozzle
    Siphon Nozzle (aspirating nozzle)
    Sonic Nozzle (sonic-whistle atomizer, ultrasonic nozzle)

    TABLE 2 Characteristic Particle Diameters and Distribution Functions

    Aerodynamic Diameter
    Area (surface) Mean Diameter
    DNf, DLf, DAf, DVf
    De Brouckere Diameter
    Equivalent Volume Sphere Diameter
    Evaporative Diameter
    Herdan Diameter
    Linear (arithmetic) Mean Diameter
    Log Normal Distribution
    Mean Diameters
    Normal Distribution
    Nukiyama-Tanasawa Distribution
    Relative Span
    Rosin-Rammler Distribution
    Sauter Mean Diameter
    Square Root Normal Distribution
    Stokes' Diameter
    Upper Limit Log Normal Distribution
    Volume Mean Diameter


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D1356 Terminology Relating to Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres

    E799 Practice for Determining Data Criteria and Processing for Liquid Drop Size Analysis


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 01.040.07 (Mathematics. Natural sciences (Vocabularies)); 07.030 (Physics. Chemistry)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    DOI: 10.1520/E1620-97R12

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