ASTM E1488 - 12e1

    Standard Guide for Statistical Procedures to Use in Developing and Applying Test Methods

    Active Standard ASTM E1488 | Developed by Subcommittee: E11.20

    Book of Standards Volume: 14.02


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 The creation of a standardized test method generally follows a series of steps from inception to approval and ongoing use. In all such stages there are questions of how well the test method performs.

    4.1.1 Assessments of a new or existing test method generally involve statistical planning and analysis. This standard recommends what approaches may be taken and indicates which standards may be used to perform such assessments.

    4.2 This standard introduces a series of phases which are recommended to be considered during the life cycle of a test method as depicted in Fig. 1. These begin with a design phase where the standard is initially prepared. A development phase involves a variety of experiments that allow further refinement and understanding of how the test method performs within a laboratory. In an evaluation phase the test method is then examined by way of interlaboratory studies resulting in precision and bias statistics which are published in the standard. Finally, the test method is subject to a monitoring phase.

     Sequence of Steps
    FIG. 1 Sequence of Steps

    4.3 All ASTM test methods are required to include statements on precision and bias.3

    4.4 Since ASTM began to require all test methods to have precision and bias statements that are based on interlaboratory test methods, there has been increased concern regarding what statistical experiments and procedures to use during the development of the test methods. Although there exists a wide range of statistical procedures, there is a small group of generally accepted techniques that are beneficial to follow. This guide is designed to provide a brief overview of these procedures and to suggest an appropriate sequence of carrying out these procedures.

    4.5 Statistical procedures often result in interpretations that are not absolutes. Sometimes the information obtained may be inadequate or incomplete, which may lead to additional questions and the need for further experimentation. Information outside the data is also important in establishing standards and in the interpretation of numerical results.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide identifies statistical procedures for use in developing new test methods or revising or evaluating existing test methods, or both.

    1.2 This guide also cites statistical procedures especially useful in the application of test methods.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods

    E178 Practice for Dealing With Outlying Observations

    E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method

    E1169 Practice for Conducting Ruggedness Tests

    E1402 Guide for Sampling Design

    E2282 Guide for Defining the Test Result of a Test Method

    E2489 Practice for Statistical Analysis of One-Sample and Two-Sample Interlaboratory Proficiency Testing Programs

    E2554 Practice for Estimating and Monitoring the Uncertainty of Test Results of a Test Method in a Single Laboratory Using a Control Sample Program

    E2586 Practice for Calculating and Using Basic Statistics

    E2587 Practice for Use of Control Charts in Statistical Process Control

    E2655 Guide for Reporting Uncertainty of Test Results and Use of the Term Measurement Uncertainty in ASTM Test Methods


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 07.020 (Mathematics); 19.020 (Test conditions and procedures in general)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 81130000(Statistics)


    DOI: 10.1520/E1488-12E01

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