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Significance and Use
4.1 The creation of a standardized test method generally follows a series of steps from inception to approval and ongoing use. In all such stages there are questions of how well the test method performs.
4.2 This standard introduces a series of phases which are recommended to be considered during the life cycle of a test method as depicted in Fig. 1. These begin with a design phase where the standard is initially prepared. A development phase involves a variety of experiments that allow further refinement and understanding of how the test method performs within a laboratory. In an evaluation phase the test method is then examined by way of interlaboratory studies resulting in precision and bias statistics which are published in the standard. Finally, the test method is subject to a monitoring phase.
4.3 All ASTM test methods are required to include statements on precision and bias.3
4.4 Since ASTM began to require all test methods to have precision and bias statements that are based on interlaboratory test methods, there has been increased concern regarding what statistical experiments and procedures to use during the development of the test methods. Although there exists a wide range of statistical procedures, there is a small group of generally accepted techniques that are beneficial to follow. This guide is designed to provide a brief overview of these procedures and to suggest an appropriate sequence of carrying out these procedures.
4.5 Statistical procedures often result in interpretations that are not absolutes. Sometimes the information obtained may be inadequate or incomplete, which may lead to additional questions and the need for further experimentation. Information outside the data is also important in establishing standards and in the interpretation of numerical results.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E178 Practice for Dealing With Outlying Observations
E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
E1169 Practice for Conducting Ruggedness Tests
E1402 Guide for Sampling Design
E2282 Guide for Defining the Test Result of a Test Method
E2489 Practice for Statistical Analysis of One-Sample and Two-Sample Interlaboratory Proficiency Testing Programs
E2554 Practice for Estimating and Monitoring the Uncertainty of Test Results of a Test Method in a Single Laboratory Using a Control Sample Program
E2586 Practice for Calculating and Using Basic Statistics
E2587 Practice for Use of Control Charts in Statistical Process Control
E2655 Guide for Reporting Uncertainty of Test Results and Use of the Term Measurement Uncertainty in ASTM Test Methods
ICS Number Code 07.020 (Mathematics); 19.020 (Test conditions and procedures in general)
UNSPSC Code 81130000(Statistics)