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Significance and Use
Liquid penetrant examination methods indicate the presence, location, and, to a limited extent, the nature and magnitude of the detected discontinuities. This practice is normally used for production examination of large volumes of parts or structures, where emphasis is on productivity. This practice offers a wide latitude in applicability when extensive and controlled conditions are available.
1.1 This practice describes procedures for visible liquid penetrant examination utilizing the water-washable process. It is a nondestructive practice for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, isolated porosity, through leaks or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination. This practice can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or fully densified ceramics, and certain nonporous plastics, and glass.
1.2 This practice also provides the following references:
1.2.1 A reference by which visible penetrant examination procedures using the water-washable process can be reviewed to ascertain their applicability and completeness.
1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications dealing with the visible, water-washable liquid penetrant examination of materials and parts. Agreement between the user and the supplier regarding specific techniques is strongly recommended.
1.2.3 For use in the organization of the facilities and personnel concerned with the liquid penetrant examination.
1.3 This practice does not indicate or suggest criteria for evaluation of the indications obtained. It should be noted, however, that after indications have been produced, they must be interpreted or classified and then evaluated. For this purpose there must be a separate code, specification, or a specific agreement to define the type, size, location, and orientation of indications considered acceptable, and those considered unacceptable.
1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are regarded as standard. SI units given in parentheses are for information only.
1.5 Basis of Application—There are areas in this practice that may require agreement between the cognizant engineering organization and the supplier, or specific direction from the cognizant engineering organization. These areas are identified as follows:
1.5.1 Penetrant type, method and sensitivity,
1.5.2 Accept/reject criteria,
1.5.3 Personnel qualification requirements,
1.5.4 Grit blasting,
1.5.6 Indication/discontinuity sizing,
1.5.7 Total processing time, and
1.5.8 Marking of parts.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D129 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)
D516 Test Method for Sulfate Ion in Water
D808 Test Method for Chlorine in New and Used Petroleum Products (High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)
D1552 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (High-Temperature Method)
E165 Practice for Liquid Penetrant Examination for General Industry
E433 Reference Photographs for Liquid Penetrant Inspection
E543 Specification for Agencies Performing Nondestructive Testing
E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
ASNT StandardsANSI/ASNT-CP-189 Standard for Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel
Military StandardMIL-STD-410 Nondestructive Testing Personnel Qualification and Certification Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, DODSSP, Bldg. 4, Section D, 700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5098
AIA StandardNAS-410 Certification and Qualification of Nondestructive Test Personnel Available from the Aerospace Industries Association of America, Inc., 1250 Eye Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20005.
ICS Number Code 19.040 (Environmental testing)