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Significance and Use
5.1 This test method is used primarily to determine the heat evolved in, or contributed to, a fire involving products of the test material. Also included is a determination of the effective heat of combustion, mass loss rate, the time to sustained flaming, and smoke production. These properties are determined on small size specimens that are representative of those in the intended end use.
5.2 This test method is applicable to various categories of products and is not limited to representing a single fire scenario. Additional guidance for testing is given in X1.2.3 and X1.11.
5.3 This test method is not applicable to end-use products that do not have planar, or nearly planar, external surfaces.
1.1 This fire-test-response standard provides for measuring the response of materials exposed to controlled levels of radiant heating with or without an external ignitor.
1.2 This test method is used to determine the ignitability, heat release rates, mass loss rates, effective heat of combustion, and visible smoke development of materials and products.
1.3 The rate of heat release is determined by measurement of the oxygen consumption as determined by the oxygen concentration and the flow rate in the exhaust product stream. The effective heat of combustion is determined from a concomitant measurement of specimen mass loss rate, in combination with the heat release rate. Smoke development is measured by obscuration of light by the combustion product stream.
1.4 Specimens shall be exposed to initial test heat fluxes in the range of 0 to 100 kW/m2. External ignition, when used, shall be by electric spark. The value of the initial test heat flux and the use of external ignition are to be as specified in the relevant material or performance standard (see X1.2). The normal specimen testing orientation is horizontal, independent of whether the end-use application involves a horizontal or a vertical orientation. The apparatus also contains provisions for vertical orientation testing; this is used for exploratory or diagnostic studies only.
1.5 Ignitability is determined as a measurement of time from initial exposure to time of sustained flaming.
1.6 This test method has been developed for use for material and product evaluations, mathematical modeling, design purposes, or development and research. Examples of material specimens include portions of an end-use product or the various components used in the end-use product.
1.7 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.8 This standard is used to measure and describe the response of materials, products, or assemblies to heat and flame under controlled conditions, but does not by itself incorporate all factors required for fire hazard or fire risk assessment of the materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions.
1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements, see Section 7.
1.10 Fire testing is inherently hazardous. Adequate safeguards for personnel and property shall be employed in conducting these tests.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D5865 Test Method for Gross Calorific Value of Coal and Coke
E176 Terminology of Fire Standards
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E603 Guide for Room Fire Experiments
E662 Test Method for Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
E906 Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using a Thermopile Method
ISO StandardsISO5657-1986(E) Fire Tests--reaction to fire--ignitability of building materials ISO5725-2(1994) Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results -- Part 2: Basic method for the determination of repeatability and reproducibility of a standard measurement method
ICS Number Code 17.200.10 (Heat. Calorimetry)
UNSPSC Code 41112201(Calorimeters); 12141904(Oxygen O)